Steps as hydraulic roughness elements in segmentally lined tunnels

Bester, J. W. (2002)

Thesis (MEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Segmentally lined tunnels are increasingly being built to transfer water from one water scheme to another. The segments that line such tunnels are often in the form of pre-cast concrete sections, which are placed around the perimeter of the tunnel. As these tunnels are very expensive to construct, it is imperative that their hydraulic capacities can be calculated accurately. Even a slight variation in the design diameter has a significant effect on the cost of the tunnel. Due to the construction method involved, alternative segments are not always properly aligned. This creates roughness elements in the tunnel commonly known as steps. These steps occur randomly and vary in size. Since the steps lead to increased roughness and thus decrease the hydraulic capacity of the tunnel, it is essential that this effect be allowed for in the design of the tunnel. A hydraulic model was used to determine the contribution of steps to the hydraulic roughness, according to step size and frequency of steps.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tonnels word al hoe meer gebou om water tussen waterskemas te vervoer. Die voering van sulke tunnels word dikwels saamgestel uit voorafvervaardigde beton panele wat geplaas word om 'n huls langs die omtrek van die tonnel te vorm. Aangesien hierdie tonnels geweldig duur is om te bou, is dit uiters noodsaaklik dat die hidrouliese kapasiteit van 'n tonnel akkuraat bereken kan word. 'n Klein variasie in die diameter van die tonnel het 'n betekenisvolle effek op die koste daarvan. Die konstruksiemetode van sulke tonnels veroorsaak dat opeenvolgende panele nie altyd presies oplyn nie. Sulke afwykings in die belyning van die tonnelpanele veroorsaak klein trappies, wat bydra tot die ruheid in die tonne I en sodoende die kapasiteit daarvan laat afneem. Die afwykings varieer in grootte en kom in geen spesifieke patroon voor nie. 'n Modelstudie is uitgevoer om die bydrae wat die afwykings in the belyning van die opeenvolgende ringe tot die hidrouliese weerstand maak, te bepaal.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53062

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