Physiological and metabolic factors determining nitrogen use efficiency of tomato seedlings grown with elevated dissolved inorganic carbon and different nitrogen sources

Viktor, Aleysia (2002-03)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine (l) the influence of elevated dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on the nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) of tomato seedlings grown with different nitrogen sources, (2) how changes in the regulation and activities of nitrate reductase (NR), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc), carbonic anhydrase (CA) and subsequent changes in metabolites would account for observed changes in NUE, and (3) to what extent elevated DIC contributed to the carbon budget of plants grown with different nitrogen sources. Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Fl44 seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture (pH 5.8) with 2 mM of either N03- or NH4 + and the solutions were aerated with either 0 ppm or 5000 ppm CO2 concentrations. The similar NUEs of NH/-fed plants grown with either root-zone CO2 concentration were largely due to their similar RGRs and N uptake rates. Elevated root-zone DIC had an initial stimulatory effect on N~ + uptake rates, but it seems as if this effect of DIC physiological processes was cancelled out by the toxic effect of unassimilated NH/. The NUE for N03--fed plants supplied with 5000 ppm root-zone CO2 was higher relative to 0 ppm root-zone CO2 and it was possibly due to the higher relative growth rates for similar N uptake rates of 5000 ppm compared to 0 ppm root-zone CO2. Nitrate-fed plants grown with 5000 ppm compared to 0 ppm root-zone CO2 had higher in vivo NR and in vitro NR and PEPc activities. These increases in enzymes activities possibly lead to increases in organic acid synthesis, which could have been used for biomass accumulation. This would account for the increased relative growth rates of N03--fed plants grown with 5000 ppm compared to 0 ppm root-zone CO2. The increasing rootzone CO2 concentrations resulted in the Ó15N values of NH/-plants becoming more positive indicating an absence of enzymatic discrimination. This may have been due to the inhibitory effect of DIC on Nll,+ uptake, causing plants to utilise both internal isotopes equally. The Ól3C studies showed that PEPc contributed equally to both N03-- and NH/-fed plants over the long term. From this it can be concluded that the lower NUE of NH/-compared to N03--fed plants grown with 5000 ppm root-zone C02 was due to increased N uptake and exudation of organic compounds into the nutrient solution. Experiments with 813C also showed that at increasing rootzone CO2 concentrations, PEPc made a bigger contribution to the carbon budget via the anaplerotic reaction.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om (1) die invloed van verhoogde opgeloste anorganiese koolstof dioksied (DIC) op die stikstofverbruiksdoeltreffenheid (NUE) van plante wat op verkillende stikstofbronne gekweek is, te bepaal. (2) Veranderinge in die regulering van nitraat reduktase (NR), fosfo-enolpirovaatkarboksilase (PEPc) en karboonsuuranhidrase (CA) is bestudeer en gekorreleer met waargeneemde verskille in NUE. (3) 'n Beraming van die mate waartoe verhoogde DIC bydra tot die koolstofbegroting van plante, gekweek op verskillende stikstofbronne, word bespreek. Lycopersicon esculentum cv. F144 saailinge is in waterkultuur (pH 5.8) met 2 mM N03- of NH/ gekweek en die oplossings is alternatiewelik met 0 ppm of 5000 ppm CO2 belug. Die NUEs van plante gekweek met NH/ en belug met albei C02 konsentrasies was vergelykbaar grootliks as gevolg van hulooreenkomstige relatiewe groeitempo's en Nopname. DIC het aanvanklik NH/ opname gestimuleer, maar enige latere stimulerende effek van DIC op fisiologiese prosesse was klaarblyklik uitgekanselleer deur N~ + toksiteit veroorsaak deur vertraagde assimilasie. Die NUE van plante gekweek met N03- en 5000 ppm CO2 was hoër as dié van plante gekweek met N03- en 0 ppm CO2. Dit is moontlik gekoppel aan hoër relatiewe groeitempo's teenoor onveranderde N opname tempo's. Plante gekweek met N03- en 5000 ppm CO2 het hoër in vivo NR en in vitro NR en PEPc aktiwiteite getoon as plante gekweek met N03- en 0 ppm CO2. Bogenoemde toenames in ensiem aktiwiteite word verbind met biomassa toename deur verhoogde organiese suur sintese. Dit bied 'n moontlike verklaring vir die hoër relatiewe groeitempo's van plante gekweek met N03- en 5000 ppm CO2 teenoor plante gegroei met N03- en 0 ppm CO2. Die 015N waardes van plante gekweek met NH/ en 5000 ppm CO2 was meer positief as dié van plante gekweek met Nl-l,+ en 0 ppm CO2 wat gedui het op die afwesigheid van ensiematiese diskriminasie. Dit kon as gevolg gewees het van die vertragende effek van DIC op Nl-la + opname wat daartoe sou lei dat die plante beide isotope eweveel inkorporeer. Eksperimente met ol3C het getoon dat PEPc oor 'n lang tydperk eweveel begedra het tot die koolstofbegroting van plante gekweek met beide N03- and N~+. Hiervan kan afgelei word dat die laer NUE van plante gekweek met NH4 + en 5000 ppm C02 in vergelyking met dié van plante gekweek met N03- en 5000 ppm CO2 die gevolg was van verhoogde NH/ opname en uitskeiding van aminosure in die voedingsoplossing. Eksperimente met 0"c het ook getoon dat verhoogde DIe konsentrasies die bydrae van PEPc tot die plant se koolstofbegroting laat toeneem.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52999
This item appears in the following collections: