'n Funksionalistiese benadering tot Bybelvertaling

Basson, Catherina Susanna (2002)

Thesis (M Phil)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The functional approach to translation is investigated in the context of Bible translation. For some practising translators, functionalism has application only in the production of instrumental translations, and for them this approach will inevitably lead to the dethroning of the source text. In Bible translation the status of the source text is very important. With the functional equivalence approach this status is disregarded in an effort to produce a Bible translation that can be used as a missionary instrument. Within functionalism, however, a documentaryexoticising translation can retain the status of the source text and can have the skopos to bridge the cultural gap between Biblical times and the modern world by adding cultural information. This was the skopos of a functional translation of the New Testament in German. Examples from this translation, as well as examples from the NAV (1983), were examined qualitatively to see how additional cultural information could assist the target reader in understanding the otherness of the ancient Biblical text. An empirical investigation was done. Text fragments from the NAV (1983), with cultural information added, were presented to people who study the Bible regularly. The response to the additional cultural information was very positive. The focus in the literature study was on the functional approach to translation, also known as skopos theory. This was compared with the functional equivalence approach as well as the newer relevance theory approach as described by Gutt. Attention was also given to the importance of culture in translation. In the functional approach other skopoi and other target groups can be identified. In a further study, the application of this approach to the translation of the Old Testament can be investigated. The functional approach might also be used in the translation of other ancient religious texts such as the Koran and the Torah. The benefits of co-operation between experts in the field of the Biblical languages and culture and practising translators are shown. The skopos of the translation will give such a team the framework within which they can produce a translation with a specific aim for a specific target group. The functional approach can be applied broadly to include both instrumental and documentary translations. In the case of Bible translation the documentary-exoticising translation provides the framework wherein the source text of the Bible can be accounted for in a responsible way. The application of functionalism is, however, wide enough to include all types of translation, provided that a clear skopos is identified and formulated for each translation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie word ondersoek ingestel na die rol wat die funksionalistiese benadering tot vertaling in Bybelvertaling kan speel. Sommige praktiserende vertalers het 'n beperkte siening van funksionalisme en koppel dit uitsluitlik aan 'n instrumentele vertaling en die noodwendige onttroning van die bronteks. In Bybelvertaling is die status van die bronteks een van die belangrikste kwessies. Met die funksioneel-ekwivalente benadering word hierdie status aangetas om 'n Bybelvertaling te kan lewer wat primêr as sendinginstrument gebruik kan word. Die funksionalistiese benadering bied egter die moontlikheid om 'n vertaling daar te stel wat dokumentêr-eksotiserend is, maar ook aan die leser daarvan bykomende kulturele inligting kan gee sodat die kultuurgaping oorbrug kan word. Hierdie spesifieke skopos is reeds toegepas in 'n funksionalistiese vertaling van die Nuwe Testament in Duits. Gedeeltes uit hierdie vertaling, asook uit die NAV (1983), word kwalitatief ondersoek om te sien hoe bykomende kulturele inligting die leser kan help om die andersheid van die antieke Bybelse teks beter te kan verstaan. In 'n empiriese ondersoek is teksgedeeltes uit die NAVen teksgedeeltes met bykomende kulturele inligting aan persone wat gereeld Bybelstudie doen, voorgelê. Hierdie lesers het die vertaling met die bykomende kulturele inligting baie positief ontvang. In die literatuurondersoek word die funksionalistiese benadering tot vertaling, ook genoem die skopos-teorie, breedvoerig bespreek en vergelyk met die funksioneleekwivalensie- benadering en die nuwer relevansie-teorie soos deur Gutt op vertaling van toepassing gemaak. Die verskillende aspekte van kultuur in vertaling kry ook aandag. Die funksionalistiese benadering bied die moontlikheid om ander skopoi en ander teikenlesers te identifiseer. In 'n verdere studie kan die toepassing van hierdie benadering op die vertaling van die Ou Testament ondersoek word. Die funksionalistiese benadering kan ook gebruik word by die vertaling van ander antieke religieuse tekste soos die Koran en die Torah. Die voordele van samewerking tussen kenners van die brontaal en -kultuur en praktiserende vertalers word uitgewys. In so 'n geval sal 'n duidelike skopos aan die kenners die raamwerk verskaf waa~binne 'n vertaling met 'n spesifieke doel en teikengroep aangepak kan word. Die funksionalistiese benadering kan breedweg toegepas word om sowel instrumentele as dokumentêre vertalings in te sluit. In die geval van Bybelvertaling bied die dokumentêreksotiserende vertaling 'n raamwerk waarbinne die bronteks van die Bybel verantwoordbaar in berekening gebring kan word. Die reikwydte van funksionalisme is egter sodanig dat dit enige tipe vertaling kan insluit op voorwaarde dat 'n duidelike skopos vir elke afsonderlike vertaling gedefinieer word.

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