Is management a subset of leadership or is leadership a subset of management with regard to project management?
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.
Traditionally project management has been found mainly in the construction industry and the project manager was a technical specialist. There was a tendency to select people solely for their technical expertise and to emphasize the hard skills (scheduling, statistical analysis, etc.) In general there was a failure to distinguish between project leadership and project management. Managing organisations through projects or through project portfolios (programmes) is gaining popularity since it is a management approach that integrates and co-ordinates current strategic business and operational dimensions. Organisations also become customer driven, which resulted in an increased demand for project managers with a new style of project management. The "new style" project managers have to cope with the traditional criteria of cost, time and specification to be met as well as more ambiguous goals in an environment of organisational politics, external environmental and marketing pressures together with the needs of the stakeholders inside and outside the organisation. Do these "new-style" projects require a project manager with leadership skills? Do we need a project manager or a project leader or both? Are both management and leadership skills essential for a project manager? What is the difference between project management and project leadership?