Die verband tussen persoonlikheid en wysheid

Conradie, Madeleine (2002-11)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The need for the wise employee in modern organisations can, especially in the light of technological advancement and global competition, not be denied. The current work environment is dynamic and poses numerous challenges to employees. Attributes such as insight, good judgement and decision-making are required; attributes that correlate with wisdom. Certain personality attributes such as maturity, tranquility, flexibility and empathy are often being used in the description of wise individuals and are also being set as requirements for the modern employee. Research and studies with regard to wisdom are limited. As limited and contradictory results exist with regard to the Industrial Psychological enquiry into wisdom, a need exists for further research, especially with regard to the circumstances and factors that are applicable to the South African business organisation. As a potential relationship between wisdom and personality traits exists, it has been set as the subject of investigation for this study. Certain personality traits grant possible access to or might faseilltate the development of wisdom. If the wise employee can be identified by means of a personality test, it can be of significant value in for example the selection process. Wisdom, for the purpose of this study, refers to expert knowledge with regard to insight, good advice and judgement for complicated life problems. The concept of personality is for the purpose of the study, based on the trait approach where the second order factors of the 16 PF-questionnaire, namely extroversion, anxiety, tough mindedness, independence and compulsivity, serve as the structural components of personality. The sample comprises 67 employees who are employed at the central office of a big South African retail company. A wisdom knowledge instrument has been used for the measurement of wisdom knowledge where participants advise on three difficult life problems. The adjusted evaluation instrument of Hira and Faulkender (1997), based on Smith and Baltes' definition of wisdom (1995) as an expert knowledge system, has been used by two evaluators for the evaluation of the responses. The biographical questionnaire was specifically developed to comply with the requirements of the investigation. The results of this investigation shows that a significant correlation between wisdom knowledge and the second order personality factors (-traits) of the 16PF exists, namely anxiety and independence. No significant correlation has been found between wisdom knowledge and the other three second-order factors, namely extroversion, tough mindedness and compulsivity. The personality traits have also indicated a low, but significant variance of the wisdom counts. Personality nevertheless shows a correlation with wisdom, in this study. Biographical variables that show a significant positive correlation with wisdom knowledge counts are sex and level of training. Male participants have performed significantly better than female participants. It is evident from the study that age does not have a significant influence on wisdom knowledge performance. It is also evident from the results that the measuring instrument reflects a valid measurement of wisdom performance and that the two evaluators' evaluations show a positive correlation with each other. Conclusions and suggestions for future research are made in accordance with the results of the investigation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die behoefte aan die wyse werknemer in hedendaagse organisasies kan, veral in die lig van snelle tegnologiese verandering en globale kompetisie, nie meer ontken word nie. Die hedendaagse werksomgewing is vinnigveranderend en stel talle uitdagings aan werknemers. Eienskappe soos insig, goeie oordeel en besluitneming word vereis, eienskappe wat met wysheid verband hou. Sekere persoonlikheidseienskappe soos volwassenheid, rustigheid, buigsaamheid en empatie word dikwels in die beskrywing van wyse persone gebruik en word ook as vereistes vir die hedendaagse werknemer gestel. Navorsing en studies ten opsigte van wysheid is beperk. Aangesien beperkte en teenstrydige resultate bestaan ten opsigte van die Bedryfsielkundige ondersoek na wysheid, bestaan daar 'n behoefte aan verdere navorsing, veral ten opsigte van die omstandighede en faktore wat van toepassing is op die Suid- Afrikaanse besigheidsorganisasie. Aangesien daar 'n potensiële verband tussen wysheid en persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan, is dit as die onderwerp van ondersoek vir hierdie studie gestel. Sekere persoonlikheids- eienskappe verleen moontlik toegang tot of fasiliteer die ont- wikkeling van wysheid. Indien die wyse werknemer deur middel van 'n persoonlikheidstoets geïdentifiseer kan word, kan dit van belangrike waarde wees in onder andere die keuringsproses. Wysheid verwys vir die doel van hierdie studie na ekspert kennis ten opsigte van insig, goeie raad en oordeel tot ingewikkelde lewensprobleme. Die begrip van persoonlikheid is vir die doel van die studie op die trekbenadering gebaseer waar die tweede-orde faktore van die 16 PF-vraelys; naamlik ekstroversie, angs, geharde ewewig, onafhanklikheid en kompulsiwiteit, as die strukturele komponente van persoonlikheid dien. Die steekproef bestaan uit 67 werknemers wat by die sentrale kantoor van 'n groot Suid-Afrikaanse kleinhandelsmaatskappy werksaam is. Vir die meting van wysheidskennis is 'n wysheidskennis- instrument gebruik waar deelnemers advies moet verskaf ten opsigte van drie moeilike lewensprobleme. Die aangepaste nasieninstrument van Hira en Faulkender (1997), wat op Smith en Baltes (1995) se definisie van wysheid as 'n ekspert kennissisteem gebaseer is, is deur twee evalueerders gebruik in die evaluering van die response. Die biografiese vraelys is ontwikkelom spesifiek aan die vereistes van die ondersoek te voldoen. Die resultate van hierdie ondersoek toon dat daar slegs beduidende korrelasies tussen wysheidskennis en die tweede-orde persoonlikheidsfaktore (-trekke) van die 16 PF angs en onafhanklikheid bestaan. Geen beduidende korrelasies tussen wysheidskennis en die ander drie tweede-orde faktore naamlik ekstroversie, geharde ewewig en kompulsiwiteit is gevind nie. Die persoonlikheidstrekke het ook 'n lae, maar beduidende variansie van die wysheidstellings getoon. Persoonlikheid toon dus wel 'n verband met wysheid in hierdie studie. Biografiese veranderlikes wat 'n beduidende positiewe verband met wysheidskennistellings toon, is geslag en vlak van opleiding. Manlike deelnemers het beduidend beter presteer as die vroulike deelnemers. Uit die studie blyk dit dat ouderdom nie 'n beduidende invloed op wysheids- kennisprestasie uitoefen nie. Dit blyk ook vanuit die resultate dat die metingsinstrument 'n geldige meting van wysheidsprestasie weergee en dat die twee evalueerders se evaluasies 'n positiewe korrelasie met mekaar toon. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings vir toe- komstige navorsing word op grond van die resultate van die ondersoek gemaak.

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