Die verband tussen gesinsorg en interpersoonlike skemas in adolessensie

De Wet, Cecilia (2002-12)

Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: An increasing number of children in South Africa are deprived of adequate parental care. Factors exacerbating the situation are the deaths of parents due to HIV/AIDS and contextual stressors like poverty and violence. Children removed from family care in accordance with stipulations of the Act on Child Care, were all exposed to factors of inadequate care like a lack of basic means of existence and/or physical, emotional or spiritual neglect or sexual abuse. The current thesis tried to determine to what extend these factors influence the social development of children. Theories of psychosocial development have shown that optimal social development starts with securing a strong positive and reciprocal emotional bond with the primary caregiver. This is the basis of personal security and interpersonal trust upon which further developmental elements like a positive self image, autonomy, pro-social behaviour, emotional well-being, moral values, the ability to find solutions to problems, self control and expectations about the future, will be based. Schema theory has confirmed the importance of positive developmental experiences in establishing positive expectations about social interaction. Negative developmental experiences will lead to dysfunctional schemas and selective processing of information. This will negatively influence emotional well-being, the ability to solve interpersonal problems and realistically assessing the self and others. Dysfunctional interpersonal patterns, inappropriate social behaviour and a less positive expectation of the future, will follow. Patterns of parental care are still important in adolescence and influence body image, sexual identity, academic achievement, career aspirations, values, autonomy and emotional well-being. Negative patterns of parenting, like loveless over-control and child abuse, lead to dysfunctional interpersonal expectations. Residential care increases the risk of diffused bonding, unless sufficient preventive measures are put in place. In the current thesis ten elements of interpersonal schemas were identified according to the above theories. Statistical comparisons of the elements were done using two groups of adolescents. Adolescents in the first group were removed from parental care in accordance with the Act on Child Care, while adolescents in the second group experienced continuous and adequate parental care. The results supported all of the hyphotheses, with a measure of ambivalence about autonomy. Psychosocial history was proved to be a measurable discriminating factor in adolescent interpersonal schemas. Sex proved to be a further discriminating factor in some elements. Girls were influenced most by the presence or lack of family security. In a second section, current programmes for social empowerment in use in children's homes, were evaluated according to the above results. Indications were given about possible adaptations and additions to therapeutic and skills programmes, the role of substitute families and character traits of staff that may help in limiting the risks of residential care.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Toenemende getal kinders in Suid-Afrika ontbeer deurlopende en toereikende gesinsorg. Faktore wat hiertoe bydra, is ouersterftes weens MIVNIGS en kontekstuele stressors soos armoede en geweld. Kinders wat uit gesinsorg verwyder word weens die bepalings van die Wet op Kindersorg, was almal blootgestel aan faktore van ontoereikende sorg soos gebrekkige bestaansmiddele en/of fisieke, emosionele of geestelike verwaarlosing of seksuele misbruik. Hierdie proefskrif het probeer vasstel in watter mate dié faktore die sosiale ontwikkeling van kinders beïnvloed. Teorieë omtrent psigososiale ontwikkeling toon aan dat optimale sosiale ontwikkeling begin by die vestiging van 'n sterk positiewe en wederkerige emosionele band met 'n primêre bindingsfiguur. Dit vorm die basis van persoonlike sekuriteit en interpersoonlike vertroue, waarop ontwikkelingselemente soos 'n positiewe selfsiening, outonomie, pro-sosialiteit, emosionele welstand, morele waardes, probleemoplossingsvaardighede, selfbeheer en toekomsverwagting gebaseer is. Skema-teorie bevestig die belang van positiewe ontwikkelings-ervarings in die daarstel van positiewe verwagtings omtrent sosiale interaksie. Negatiewe ontwikkelings-ervarings lei tot disfunksionele skemas, waarin inligting selektief verwerk word. Dit het 'n negatiewe uitwerking op emosionele welstand, die vaardigheid om interpersoonlike probleme op te los en realisties oor die self en ander te oordeel. Die gevolg is patrone van interpersoonlike wanaanpassing, ontoepaslike sosiale optrede en 'n minder positiewe toekomsverwagting. In adolessensie speelouerskapspatrone steeds 'n rol ten opsigte van liggaamsbeeld, geslagsidentiteit, akademiese prestasie, beroepsideale, waardes, outonome optrede en emosionele welstand. Negatiewe ouerskapspatrone, soos oormatige en liefdelose beheer en kindermishandeling, lei tot disfunksionele interpersoonlike verwagtings. Residensiële sorg verhoog die risiko vir diffuse bindingsgedrag, tensy doeltreffende voorsorgmaatreëls daargestel word. In die proefskrif is tien elemente van interpersoonlike skemas aan die hand van die teoretiese uiteensetting geïdentifiseer. 'n Statistiese vergelyking ten opsigte van die elemente is gedoen met twee groepe adolessente. Die eerste groep is weens wetlike bepalings uit ouersorg verwyder, terwyl die tweede groep deurlopende en toereikende ouersorg ervaar het. Die resultate het al die hipoteses ondersteun, met 'n mate van ambivalensie omtrent outonomie. Psigososiale geskiedenis was dus 'n meetbare onderskeidingsfaktor ten opsigte van interpersoonlike skemas in adolessensie. Geslag was 'n verdere meetbare faktor by sommige elemente. Dogters was die meeste beïnvloed deur die teenwoordigheid van óf gebrek aan gesinsekuriteit. In 'n tweede afdeling, is die bestaande programme van sosiale bemagtiging in kinderhuise geëvalueer in die lig van bogenoemde resultate. Aanbevelings is gedoen oor die aanpassing en uitbouing van terapeutiese en vaardigheidprogramme, die rol van substituut-gesinne en die eienskappe van personeel wat kan bydra om die risiko's van inrigtingsorg te verminder.

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