Die ontwikkeling van morele besluitnemingsvaardighede deur buitelugopvoeding by leerders in die Intermediere fase vanuit 'n Christelike benadering

Botha, Sarah (2002-12)

Thesis (MEdPsych)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Moral development demands a process of individual acceptance or rejection of values and the integration of accepted values in a personal value system. However, for the development of a personal value system, it is not sufficient - particularly in a post-modem era - merely to moralise and set an example. Children therefore have to be guided to internalise positive values and to demonstrate these values in their behaviour. In this process decision-making plays an important role. The moral decision-making model that became more popular than character building in the nineteen-sixties, does not equip learners sufficiently for moral decision-making. In order to attend to this research problem, a qualitative investigation was done, comprising a literature study and field work. The purpose ofthe investigation was to determine the indicators that playa role in compiling a programme for out-door education for learners of the Intermediary Phase, with special reference to decision-making skills. The following important aspects came to the fore from the literature study: It is becoming increasingly difficult for learners to choose between right and wrong. They are surrounded by deviating moral values. Therefore learners should be assisted in making important choices of life, based on a healthy value system. The Intermediary Phase, also known as the mid childhood period, serves as preparation for the adjustments that take place during the adolescent years. The development of moral values, therefore, is an important development task during this phase of life. For children to be able to make ajudicial decision about what is "right" and what is "wrong", they have to be knowledgeable about what is "right" and what is "wrong". There ought to be a specific criterion for making such a decision. The debate whether something such as life orientation as learning area in schools can be or cannot be approached from a particular religious conviction, is currently in progress. Values can not be instructed in a neutral way. Religion is a determining factor from a Christian frame of reference in learning values and norms, as it has moral implications. This study has been approached from a Christian frame of reference. The premises of the humanistic movement, in which the classic moral decision-making approach finds its grounding, is irreconcilable with the Christian religion. Should the moral decision-making model be accepted without protest as a final decision in the complex values debate, it could result in moral selfdestruction. There are, however, aspects of the moral decision-making model that could be integrated meaningfully with character building with a view to guiding the learner to moral development. This integrated approach is a focal point in this study. Based on the literature study as well as the field work, which comprised an indaba (ideas conference), study visits abroad, and interviews, the researcher arrived at the conclusion that an integration of an institution for out-door education and an activity circuit with well-trained instructors and facilitators may provide the answer to the research problem. It is problematic to pull together an integrated approach in a simple framework; however, this study offers an intellectual framework in which twenty indicators are highlighted. These indicators can make a contribution in compiling a programme for out-door education for learners in the Intermediary Phase, with a view to teaching decision-making skills, based on character building and aspects of the moral decisionmaking model.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Mórele ontwikkeling vereis 'n proses van individuele aanvaarding of verwerping van waardes en die integrasie van aanvaarde waardes in 'n persoonlike waardesisteem. Vir die ontwikkeling van 'n persoonlike waardesisteem is blote moralisering en voorbeeldstelling egter nie genoeg nie - veral nie in 'n postmoderne era nie. Kinders behoort derhalwe begelei te word om positiewe waardes te verinnerlik en dit in hul gedrag te demonstreer. In hierdie proses speel besluitneming 'n belangrike ror Die morele besluitnemingsmodel wat in die sestigerjare meer populêr as karakteropvoeding geword het, rus leerders nie genoegsaam toe vir die neem van morele besluite nie. Om aan hierdie navorsingsprobleem aandag te skenk, is 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek bestaande uit 'n literatuurstudie en veldondersoek, gedoen. Die doel van die ondersoek is om die indikatore te bepaal wat 'n rol speel by die opstel van 'n buitelugopvoedingsprogram vir leerders van die Intermediêre Fase met die oog op besluitnemingsvaardighede. Vanuit die literatuurstudie blyk die volgende van belang te wees. Dit is vir leerders al moeiliker om tussen reg en verkeerd te kies. Hulle word omring deur , a(~'Ykende morele waardes. Leerders behoort dus gehelp te word om belangrike lewenskeuses vanuit 'n gesonde waardestelsel te maak. Die Intermediêre Fase, ook bekend as die middelkinderjare, dien as 'n voorbereiding vir die aanpassings wat in die adolessente jare plaasvind. Die ontwikkeling van morele waardes is dus 'n belangrike ontwikkelingstaak tydens hierdie lewensfase. Vir kinders om 'n oordeelsbesluit tussen wat "reg" en wat "verkeerd" is te kan maak, moet hulle kennis dra van wat "reg" en wat "verkeerd" is. Daar behoort 'n bepaalde kriterium te wees om hierdie keuse te kan maak. Daar is tans 'n debat in Suid-Afrika aan die gang dat iets soos lewensoriëntering as leerarea in skole nie vanuit 'n bepaalde geloofsoortuiging gedoen kan word nie, aangesien Suid-Afrika se skole in 'n sekulêre samelewing opereer. Waardes kan egter nie neutraal onderrig word nie. Godsdiens is 'n bepalende faktor vanuit 'n Christelike perspektief in die aanleer van waardes en norme, aangesien dit morele implikasies het. Hierdie studie is vanuit 'n Christelike verwysingsraamwerk benader. Die uitgangspunte van die humanistiese beweging, waarop die klassieke morele besluitnemingsbenadering gebaseer is, is onversoenbaar met die Christelike geloof. Indien die morele besluitnemingsmodel kritiekloos aanvaar word as 'n uitkoms vir die komplekse waarde-debat kan dit tot morele selfvernietiging aanleiding gee. Daar is wel aspekte van die morele besluitnemingsmodel wat sinvol geïntegreer kan word met karakteropvoeding ten einde 'n leerder tot morele ontwikkeling te lei. Hierdie geïntegreerde benadering is 'n fokuspunt van hierdie studie. Die navorser het vanuit die literatuurstudie en veldondersoek, bestaande uit 'n ideëberaad, studiebesoeke aan die buiteland asook onderhoude, tot die insig gekom dat 'n integrering van 'n buitelugopvoedingsinstansie en 'n aktiwiteitsbaan met goed opgeleide instrukteurs en fasiliteerders 'n antwoord kan wees op die navorsingsprobleem. Dit is moeilik om 'n geïntegreerde benadering in 'n enkelvoudige raamwerk saam te vat. Tog word in hierdie studie wel 'n denkraamwerk aangebied waarin twintig indikatore uitgelig word. Hierdie indikatore kan help met die opstel van 'n buitelugopvoedingsprogram vir leerders in die Intermediêre Fase ten einde besluitnemingsvaardighede, gegrond op karakteropvoeding en aspekte van die morele besluitnemingsmodel, te onderrig.

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