Die invloed van bemesting en lowerbestuur op die kaliuminhoud en pH van Cabernet sap en wyn

Engelbrecht, G. P. (2002-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In an attempt to reduce the pH of juice and wine, different fertiliser applications and canopy management practices were evaluated in a field trial. Fertiliser treatments consisted of no, CaS04, Ca(OH)2, and MgS04 fertilisation. Canopy management was as follows: suckering (leaving only two shoots per bearer), tipping, vertical shoot positioning and removal of lateral shoots and yellow leaves in the bunch zone (Canopy 1); suckering (leaving three shoots per bearer), vertical shoot positioning as well as topping (Canopy 2); vertical shoot positioning and topping (Canopy 3). The field trial was conducted in the Paardeberg region on the farms Meerlus and Kersfontein. The vineyard at Meerlus was Cabernet franc/R99 with a high canopy density and a good root distribution, established on a sandy loam soil of granite origin, with a low subsoil pH and a high K content. The vineyard at Kersfontein was Cabemet Sauvignon/101-14 Mgt with a lower canopy density and a less extensive root distribution, also established on a sandy loam soil of granite origin, but with a low top- and subsoil pH and a higher K content. Fertilisation had no significant influence on the K content of juice and wine. Fertilisation with Ca and Mg reduced the pH of juice significantly in the case of Meerlus. In contrast, Mg fertilisation increased the pH of juice significantly at Kersfontein. Lastly, fertilisation had no significant effect on the pH of the wine. The K content of the juice at Meerlus was significantly reduced by Canopy 3 in comparison with Canopy 1 and 2. However, in contrast with Canopy 1 and 3, Canopy 2 significantly increased the pH of juice at Meerlus. The K content of the juice at Kersfontein was significantly reduced by Canopy 1, compared to Canopy 2 and 3, with no significant effect on the pH of the juice. Canopy management had no significant effect on wine pH. It appears to be possible to reduce the pH of juice in the case of Cabernet franc/99R, situated on granite soils, by means of Ca and Mg fertilisation. Because Ca(OH)2 and MgS04 fertilisation increased the maturity of Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14 Mgt grapes, it was impossible to evaluate the effect of fertilisation on the pH of juice at Kersfontein. The general phenomenon that a high canopy density results in a high pH of juice and wine, was not observed in this field trial. The possible reasons for this were the low canopy density of the control plots, as well as the difference in maturity between canopy management treatments.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In 'n poging om die pH van sap en wyn te verlaag, is die effek van verskillende bemesting- en lowerbestuursfaktore in 'n veldproef geêvalueer. Bemesting het bestaan uit geen, CaS04, Ca(OH)2 en MgS04 toediennings. Lowerbestuur was: suier tot twee lote per draer, tip, vertikale lootposisionering, verwydering van sylote en geel blare in trossone (Lower 1); suier tot drie lote per draer, top en vertikale lootposisionering (Lower 2); top en vertikale lootposisionering met geen suier nie (Lower 3). Die veldproef is op twee plase nl. Meerlus en Kersfontein, in die Paardeberg omgewing uitgevoer. Die wingerd by Meerlus was Cabernet franc/R99 met 'n hoë lowerdigtheid en goeie wortelverspreiding, wat op 'n sandleemgrond van graniet oorsprong met In lae ondergrond-pH en hoë K-inhoud gevestig is. Die wingerd by Kersfontein het bestaan uit Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14 Mgt met 'n laer lowerdigtheid en swakker wortelverspreiding, wat op In sandleemgrond van graniet oorsprong met In deurgaans lae grond-pH en baie hoë K-inhoud gevestig is. Bemesting het geen betekenisvolle invloed op die K-inhoud van sap en wyn gehad nie. By Meerlus het Ca- en Mg-bemesting egter die pH van sap betekenisvol verlaag. In teenstelling hiermee het Mg-bemesting die sap-ph by Kersfontein betekenisvol verhoog. Bemesting het verder geen betekenisvolle invloed op die pH van wyn gehad nie. Lower 3 het die K-inhoud van sap by Meerlus betekenisvol verlaag in vergelyking met Lower 1 en Lower 2. By Kersfontein was die K-inhoud van sap by Lower 1 betekenisvollaer as by Lower 2 en Lower 3. Teenoor Lower 1 en Lower 3 het Lower 2 'n betekenisvol hoër sap-pH by Meerlus tot gevolg gehad. Lowerbehandelings het egter geen betekenisvolle invloed op die pH van wyn gehad nie. Die moontlikheid bestaan dus om die sap-pH van Cabernet franc/R99 op granietgrond betekenisvol m.b.v. Ca- en Mg-bemesting te verlaag. Aangesien Ca(OH)2- en MgS04- bemesting die rypheidsgraad van Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14 Mgt se druiwe betekenisvol verhoog het, was dit onmoontlik om die effek van bemesting op sap-pH by Kersfontein te evalueer. Die algemene verskynsel dat 'n hoë lowerdigtheid tot hoë pH's in sap en wyn lei, is nie in die proef ondervind nie. Die lae lowerdigtheid van die kontrole persele en die verskil in rypheidsgraad tussen lowerbehandelings kan moontlik as rede hiervoor aangevoer word.

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