A biochemical study of budbreak and plant growth regulators in table grapes

Lombard, Petrus Johannes (2002-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The cultivation of table grapes in the warmer areas of South Africa, indeed worldwide, is complicated by rest breaking problems in spring due to delayed budbreak. In order to overcome these problems rest breaking agents, mainly hydrogen cyanamide, are applied. However, instead of alleviating the problem, additional problems such as uneven budbreak and reduced production are often induced. This study was initiated to further understand the physiological processes occurring during budbreak and how the application of hydrogen cyanamide influences these processes. The following aspects were investigated in this study: a. The effect of hydrogen cyanamide on tissue cytokinin (specifically zeatin riboside) levels of Sultanina table grape vines after application at different times before natural budbreak was studied over two seasons. In 1997, hydrogen cyanamide was applied at three weeks before induced budbreak and in 1998 at six weeks before induced budbreak. One year-old canes were sampled weekly after hydrogen cyanamide application, divided into distal and proximal sections, then further divided into buds, bark and wood tissues and the zeatin riboside (ZR) levels determined. A relatively high amount of chilling coupled to late hydrogen cyanamide application in 1997 led to a large effect on ZR release, but did not lead to significant shifting of the budbreak pattern. Zeatin riboside peaks were observed in buds, internode wood and bark of treated vines compared to control vines. The peaks were higher in distal portions compared to proximal portions in all tissues. The relatively lower chilling and earlier application of hydrogen cyanamide in 1998 had a larger effect on the budbreak pattern while the bud ZR peak was shifted earlier. The distal portion bud ZR . peak was again higher than the proximal portion bud ZR peak. In 1997, as sampling was not initiated early enough, bud ZR peaks were only observed after budbreak, while in 1998 bud ZR peaks were observed before and after budbreak. The effect of these ZR increases on the development of inflorescence primordia, subsequent bunch development and ultimately production, are discussed. b. Free xylem sap was sampled at cane and spur pruned lengths from unpruned canes of Sultanina from budswell until after budbreak in 1999 and from three table grape cultivars, i.e Sultanina, Alphonse Lavalleé and Sunred Seedless, in 2001 and ZR levels determined. The ZR levels in the buds of these three table grape cultivars, pruned to different cane lengths were also determined. One year old canes of these cultivars, were each pruned to long canes (14 buds) and short spurs (2 buds). The ZR content in buds of these canes at distal and proximal positions were determined weekly from budswell until after budbreak in 1999. Xylary ZR peaks occurred before 50% budbreak. Spur xylary ZR levels of all three cultivars followed a similar pattern, although at lower ZR levels than that of the canes. This is similar to previous studies on xylary ZR levels of apple shoots. The high levels of free ZR found in xylem sap at the distal portions of canes support the hypothesis of a cumulative ZR build-up effect as cane length increases. Spur pruning resulted in earlier budbreak and a higher final budbreak than cane pruning. The proximal portions of shoots, whether spur pruned or the proximal portions of canes, showed elevated ZR levels in all cultivars. This difference in ZR levels in bud tissue of different portions of the cane would suggest a difference in ZR consumption or turnover. The results of this study have important management implications for the cultivation of vines in warmer areas in which hydrogen cyanamide is used to alleviate budbreak problems.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die verbouing van tafeldruiwe in die warmer gebiede van Suid-Afrika, soos straks wêreldwyd, word bemoeilik deur rusbreekprobleme in die lente weens vertraagde bot. Rusbreekmiddels, meestal waterstofsiaanamied, word gevolglik toegedien om hierdie probleme te probeer oorkom. In plaas van opheffing van die probleem, veroorsaak hierdie toedienings somtyds addisionele probleme soos ongelyke bot en verlaagde produksie. Hierdie studie is aangepak om die fisiologiese prosesse wat tydens bot plaasvind, beter te verstaan, asook hoe die toediening van waterstofsiaanamied hierdie prosesse beïnvloed. Die volgende is in hierdie studie ondersoek: a. Die invloed van waterstofsiaanamied op lootweefsel sitokinien (naamlik zeatin ribosied, ZR) vlakke van 'n Sultanina tafeldruif wingerd is oor twee seisoene ondersoek na toediening op verskillende tye voor bot. Waterstofsiaanamied is in 1997 drie weke en in 1998 ses weke voor geïnduseerde bot toegedien. Een jaar oue lote is weekliks gemonster na waterstofsiaanamied toediening, verdeel in apikale en basale gedeeltes en verder verdeel in ogies, bas en houtweefsel en die ZR vlakke bepaal. Relatief hoër vlakke koue, gekoppel met later watersiaanamied toediening het in 1997 tot 'n groot effek op ZR vlakke gelei, maar het nie die botpatroon wesentlik verskuif nie. Zeatin ribosied pieke is waargeneem in ogies, internode hout en bas van behandelde wingerd in vergelyking met kontrole wingerd. Die pieke was hoër in apikale gedeeltes in vergelyking met basale gedeeltes in alle weefsels. Die relatief laer koue en vroeër toediening van waterstofsiaanamied in 1998 het 'n groter effek op die botpatroon gehad, terwyl die ogie ZR piek vroeër geskuif is. Die apikale gedeelte se ogie ZR piek was weereens hoër as die basale gedeelte se ogie ZR piek. Monstering was nie vroeg genoeg begin in 1997 nie, aangesien ogie ZR pieke slegs na bot waargeneem is, terwylogie ZR pieke in 1998 voor en na bot waargeneem is. Die effek van hierdie verhoging in ZR vlakke op die ontwikkeling van blom primordia, daaropvolgende tros ontwikkeling en uiteindelik produksie, is bespreek. b. Vry xileemsap is gemonster van langdraer en kortdraer gedeeltes van ongesnoeide lote van Sultanina vanaf ogieswel tot na bot in 1999 en vanaf drie tafeldruif kultivars, naamlik Sultanina, Alphonse lavalleé en Sunred Seedless, in 2001 en die ZR vlakke bepaal. Die ZR vlakke van ogies van hierdie drie kultivars, gesnoei tot verskillende lootlengtes is ook bepaal. Eenjarige lote van hierdie kultivars is gesnoei tot langdraers (14 ogies) en kortdraers (2 ogies). Die ZR vlakke in ogies geleë op apikale en basale gedeeltes van hierdie lote is weekliks in 1999 bepaal vanaf ogieswel tot na bot Xileemsap ZR pieke is waargeneem voor 50% bot. Kortdraer xileemsap ZR vlakke het 'n soortgelyke patroon as die langdraers gevolg vir al drie kultivars, alhoewel teen laer ZR vlakke as die langdraers. Hierdie waarneming is soortgelyk aan vorige studies op xileemsap ZR vlakke van appel lote. Die hoë ZR vlakke gevind in die xileemsap van die apikale gedeeltes van lote ondersteun die hipotese van 'n kumulatiewe opbou van ZR soos die lengte van die loot toeneem. Die snoei van lote as kortdraers het gelei tot vroeër bot en 'n hoër finale bot persentasie as die snoei van langdraers. Die basale gedeeltes van lote het verhoogde ZR vlakke in al drie kultivars getoon, onafhanklik van die feit dat dit vanaf die kortdraer of die basale gedeelte van 'n langdraer was. Hierdie verskil in ZR vlakke in ogie weefsel van verskillende gedeeltes van die loot impliseer 'n verskil in ZR verbruik of omset. The resultate van hierdie studie het belangrike bestuursimplikasies vir die verbouing van wingerd in warmer gebiede, waar waterstofsiaanamied gebruik word om botprobleme te oorkom.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52617
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