The effect of monosaccharide reducing sugars on the atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate

De Vries, Andrew Robert (2001-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2001

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The effect of various organic reducing agents, in the. form of monosaccharide reducing sugars, on the rate of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of n-butyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate is reported in this study. The addition of the reducing sugars has a positive effect on the rate of ATRP. Up to 100% increase in the rate of polymerization was recorded, in some cases. These organic reducing agents have little effect on the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the polyin-butyl methacrylate) and polydispersity indexes remain well below 1.2. The molecular weight of the poly(methyl methacrylate), when glucose and galactose are added to the reaction mixture, compares well with the theoretical expected values. An explanation for these observations is the ability of the reducing sugars to reduce part of the Cu(II) species, that serves to deactivate the growing radicals, to Cu(I), thereby ensuring a shift in the equilibrium between active and dormant chains in the direction of the former and a resulting increase in the rate of polymerization. uvNIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to investigate the mechanism behind the polymerization rate enhancement.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie word die effek van verskeie organiese reduseermiddels, in die vorm van monosakkaried reduserende suikers, op die tempo van polimerisasie van ATRP gerapporteer. Hierdie reduserende suikers het 'n positiewe effek op die polimerisasie tempo. In sommige gevalle word 'n toename van 100% in die polimerisasie tempo waargeneem. Die organiese reduseermiddels het 'n minimale effek op die molekulere massa en molekulere massa verspreiding (in meeste gevalle minder as 1.2) van die poly(n-butiel metakrielaat). In die geval van die poly(metiel metakrielaat), wanneer glukose en galaktose by die reaksie mengsel gevoeg word, stem die molekulere massas goed ooreen met die teoreties voorspelde molekulere massas. Die waargenome toename in die polimerisasie tempo kan toegeskryf word aan die vermoe van die reduserende suikers om die Cu(II), wat dien om die groeiende radikale te deaktiveer, gedeeltelik te reduseer na Cu(l). Hierdeur word verseker dat die ewewig tussen die aktiewe en dormante kettings in die rigting van die eersgenoemde verskuif word, wat dus aanleiding gee tot 'n toename in die polimerisasie tempo. Ultraviolet spektroskopie en sikliese voltammetrie is ook gebruik om lig te werp op die meganisme agter die toename in die tempo van polimerisasie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52519
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