Of nature and people : community-based natural resource management and land restitution at Makuleke

Louw, Francois Johannes (2010-12)

Thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Anthropology at the University of Stellenbosch

Thesis (MA (Sociology and Social Anthropology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis is an exploration of how a new development culture has been cultivated at the end of the 20th century in reaction to the ‘crisis of development’ and the need to bring relief to impoverished communities in an environmentally sustainable manner. I uncover the key constraints on and opportunities for sustainable development and Community-Based Natural Resource Management that have emerged in land restitution claims in conservation areas in South Africa. I look at how inherited socio-political pasts poise actors and influence the relationships and interactions between them, how the current nature-tourism industry works to the detriment of some and the benefit of other actors in terms of gaining economic success and ultimately how these two factors influence conservation-based CBNRM projects. I examine three cases, namely: the Aboriginal community in Kakadu National Park, the Khomani San in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the Makuleke in Kruger National Park. Through this examination I draw specific conclusions: the repercussions of racial segregation policies puts community actors at a disadvantage when engaging with their partners; specific dynamics of the tourism industry threatens the success of CBNRM projects because the expected substantial benefits are not always guaranteed; and the lack of sound local governance impedes sustainable development at community-level.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis is ‘n verkenning van hoe ‘n nuwe ontwikkelingskultuur gekweek is aan die einde van die 20ste eeu deur die ‘krisis van ontwikkeling’ en die noodsaaklikheid om verligting te bring aan verarmde gemeenskappe op ‘n omgewings-volhoubare wyse. Ek lig die beperkings en kerngeleenthede tot volhoubare ontwikkeling en Gemeenskaps-Gebaseerde Natuurlike Hulpbronbestuur uit wat in grondhervormingseise in bewaringsgebiede in Suid-Afrika na vore gekom het. Ek kyk na hoe die historiese sosio-politiese erflating rolspelers posisioneer en verhoudings en interaksies tussen hulle beïnvloed, hoe die huidige natuur-toerisme industrie tot die nadeel van sommige en voordeel van sekere ander rolspelers werk in terme van die verkryging van ekonomiese sukses en uiteindelik hoe hierdie twee faktore bewarings-gebaseerde GBNHB beïnvloed. Ek bestudeer drie gevallestudies, naamlik die Inboorling-gemeenskap in die Kakadu Nasionale Park, die Khomani San in die Kalahari Gemsbok Nasionale Park en die Makuleke in die Nasionale Kruger -Wildtuin. Analise lei my tot spesifieke gevolgtrekkings: die nagevolge van rasse-segregasie-beleid plaas gemeenskapsakteurs in ‘n benadeelde posisie wanneer hulle in interaksie is met hulle vennote; die spesifieke dinamika van die toerisme-industrie bedreig die sukses van GBNHB projekte omdat die verwagte noemenswaardige voordele nie altyd gewaarborg kan word nie; en die gebrek aan effektiewe plaaslike bestuur belemmer volhoubare ontwikkeling op gemeenskapsvlak.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/5244
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