Probabilistic analytical methods for evaluating MV distribution networks including voltage regulating devices

Kundy, Beda Jerome (2001-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Accurate load models are required for the computation of load flows in MV distribution networks. Modem microprocessors in recent times enable researchers to sample and log domestic loads. The findings show that they are stochastic in nature and are best described by a beta probability distribution. . In rural areas two different load types may be present. Such loads are domestic and pump loads, the latter may be modelled as constant P - Q loads. An analytical tool for computing voltage regulation on MV distribution networks for rural areas feeding the mentioned loads is therefore required. The statistical evaluation of the consumer voltages requires a description of load currents at the time of the system maximum demand. To obtain overall consumer voltages at any specified risk for the two types of the loads, the principle of superposition is adopted. The present work deals with conventional 22kV three-phase distribution (te:. - te:.) connected networks as used by ESKOM, South Africa. As the result of the connected load, MV networks can experience poor voltage regulation. To solve the problem of voltage regulation, voltage regulators are employed. The voltage regulators considered are step-voltage regulators, capacitors and USE (Universal Semiconductor Electrification) devices. USE devices can compensate for the voltage drops of up to 35% along the MV distribution network, thus the criteria for the application of the USE devices is also investigated. The load currents are treated as signals when assessing the cost of distribution system over a period of time due to power losses. The individual load current signal is modelled by its mean and standard deviation. The analytical work for developing general expressions of the total real and total imaginary components of branch voltage drops and line power losses in single and three-phase networks without branches are presented. To deal with beta-distributed currents on MV distribution networks, new scaling factors are evaluated at each node. These new scaling factors are derived from the distribution transformer turns ratio and the deterministic component of the statistically distributed load currents treated as constant real power loads. In the case of an individual load current signal, the transformation ratio is evaluated from the distribution transformer turns ratio and the average value of the· signal treated as constant real power load. The evaluation of the consumer voltage percentile values can be accurately evaluated up to 35% voltage drop. This is possible by the application of the expanded Taylor series, using the first three terms. The coefficients of these three terms were obtained using a search engine imbedded in the probabilistic load flow. The general expressions for evaluating the overall consumer voltages due to statistical and non-statistical loads currents are also given. These non-statistical currents may be due to constant P - Q loads, line capacitance and the modeling of voltage regulators. The Newton-Raphson algorithm is applied to perform a deterministic load flow on singlephase networks. A backward and forward sweep algorithm is applied to perform a deterministic load flow on single and three-phase systems. A new procedure for modelling step-voltage regulators in three-phase (te:. - te:.) connected networks is outlined. Specifying a transformation ratio of 1.1 and 1.15 respectively, identifies the open-delta or closed-delta configuration for three-phase networks. The algorithms and the developed general expressions for single and three-phase networks without branches are presented in this work. A new algorithm is developed to enable the developed general expressions to be applied to practical MV distribution networks. The algorithms were tested for their accuracy by comparing the analytical results with Monte Carlo simulation and they compared well. An illustrative example to show the application of the present work on a practical MY distribution networks is presented. A criterion for the application of the USE devices is outlined. It is anticipated that, the work presented in this thesis will be invaluable to those involved in the design of MY distribution systems in developing countries.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Akkurate lasrnodelle word benodig vir drywingsvloei analises in MV distribusiestelsels. As gevolg van nuwe digitale verwerkers is dit deesdae moontlik om huishoudelike laste te monitor. Die lasdata dui daarop dat laste stochasties is en kan met behulp van die Beta verdeling beskryf word. In landelike gebiede is daar twee tipes laste. Hulle is eendersyds huishoudelike laste en andersyds pomp-tipe laste wat as konstante P-Q laste beskou kan word. Dit is dus belangrik om toepaslike analitiese metodes te gebruik om die spanningsvalle by hierdie laste te bereken met inagname van die las-tipes. By die statistiese berekening van die verbruiker se spanning moet 'n statistiese model van die lasstroom verskaf word op die tydstip van maksimum aanvraag. Daarna moet die prinsiep van superposissie gebruik word om die spannings by verskeie nodes by 'n gespesifiseerde vertrouensinterval te bepaal. Hierdie proefskrif is gebaseer op konvensionele 22kV, drie fase distribusie (delta na delta) netwerke, soos deur Eskom, Suid Afrika gebruik. Hierdie stelsels ondervind dikwels nadelige spanningsvlakke en spanningsreëlaars word derhalwe aangewend. Hierdie reëlaars is gewoonlik van tap-tipe of daar kan ook gebruik gemaak word van kapasitore en ook elektroniese reëlaars soos die USE tipe toestelle. Laasgenoemde kan op LV vir spanningsvalle tot 35% kompenseer. In hierdie werk word die werkdrywing verliese in die geleiers bereken met behulp 'n seinmodel van die lasstrome. Die individuele lasstrome word by wyse van gemiddeldes en variasies beskryf. Om die algemene algoritmes vir die berekening van die reële en imaginêre spanningsvalle, asook die verliese in enkelfase en driefase stelsels daar te stel word aanvanklik gebruik gemaak van stelsels sonder vertakkings. Om die statistiese lasbeskrywing op die laagspanningskant na die MV vlak oor te dra word van nuwe skaalfaktore gebruik gemaak. Hierdie faktore word bereken op die basis van die transformator se verhouding en die deterministiese komponent van die statistiese verspreide lasstrome, as konstante reële drywingslaste beskou. Met die ontwikkelde metode kan die verbruiker se spanning by 'n gegewe vertrouensinterval akkuraat bereken word vir spanningsvalle tot 35%. Dit word moontlik gemaak deur die Taylor-reeks tot drie terme toe te pas. Daar moet egter gebruik gemaak word van toepaslike koëffisiënte wat bepaal word deur 'n geprogrammeerde soektog. 'n Algemene stel vergelykings om die spanning by enige verbruiker te bereken, ongeag die topologie van die netwerk, word ook gegee. Die Newton-Raphson metode word aangewend om die deterministiese drywingsvloei op enkelfase stelsels te bereken. A truwaartse-voorwaartse metode is gebruik om die drywingsvloei te bepaal vir driefase stelsels. 'n Nuwe prosedure is ontwikkel vir die modellering van die spanningsreëlaars in driefase, delta-delta netwerke. Deur gebruik te maak van 'n transformatorverhouding van 1.1 of 1.15 kan die oop-delta of toe-delta netwerke voorgestel word. 'n Nuwe algoritme is ontwikkelom multi-vertakkings in 'n netwerk te hanteer. Al die prosedures is deeglik met behulp van Monte Carlo simulasies getoets en die resultate is heel bevredigend. Om die metodes te illustreer word 'n gevallestudie ingesluit waar die metodes gebruik word om 'n netwerk te evalueer met en sonder die sogenaamde USE toestelle. Kriteria vir die aanwending van hierdie toerusting word voorgestel. Daar word verwag dat die werk soos in hierdie proefskrifuiteengesit is die ontwerp van MV distribusiestelsels, veral in ontwikkelende lande, heelwat sal verbeter.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52414
This item appears in the following collections: