Distribution of income among South African population groups

Kofi, Ampofo-Twumasi (2001-12)

Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to verify the extent to which income distribution among the population groups in South Africa has changed since the 199! population census. These were the findings: It was established in this study that, at October 1996 the income share of Whites had dropped from 71.2 percent (1970) to 51.9 percent. The White population constitute 12.6 percent of South Africa population in 1996 but they received more than 50 percent of personal income in the country. At October 1996 the per capita income of Whites was 8.8 times that of Africans, 4.5 times that of Coloureds and 2.3 times that of Indians. The study found that income disparities between the population groups have narrowed, but there are a lot left to be done to remove income inequalities in the country. The study found that the income which accrued to each population group was not uniformly distributed within the group. In all population groups, the poorest 40%, and the next 41-70% household income classes suffered losses in household income shares between 1991 and 1996. In all population groups it was the richest 10% households who received the lion's share of income which accrued to the group, between 1991 and 1996. The study further found a shift in African employees from elementary occupations to artisan and machine operators. Between 1995 and 1999 the proportion of Coloureds in elementary jobs declined in favour of artisans, machine operators, managers and professionals. Indians and Whites had the smallest proportion of their workforce engaged in elementary occupations Only 5.4 percent of Africans aged 20 and above were found to possess degrees, diplomas and certificates in 1999, compared to 6.5 percent Coloureds, 14.3 percent Indians, 31.5 percent Whites. As high as 15.5 percent of Africans had not received any formal education at October 1999 compared to 7.9 percent Coloureds, 3.5 percent Indians and 0.3 percent Whites. Unemployment in all population groups has increased since the 1996 South African population census.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om die verandering in die omvang van die inkomsteverdeling tussen die bevolkingsgroepe sedert die 1991 bevolkingsopname te bevestig. Daar is bevind dat die inkomste aandeel van Blankes vanaf 71.2 persent in 1970 na 51.9 persent in 1996 afgeneem het. Die Blanke bevolking het 12.6 persent van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking in 1996 uitgemaak, maar hulle ontvang meer as 50 persent van persoonlike inkomste in die land. In Oktober 1996 was die per capita inkomste van Blankes 8.8 keer meer as dié van Swart Suid-Afrikaners en 6.8 keer meer as dié van Kleurlinge. Die studie het gevind dat inkomsteverskille tussen die bevolkingsgroepe verminder het, maar dat daar nog groot inkomste ongelykhede is. Die studie het verder bevind dat die verdeling van inkomste binne elke bevolkingsgroep ongelyk verdeel is. Tussen 1991 en 1996 het in alle bevolkingsgroepe, die armste 40%, en die volgende 41-70% huishoudelike inkomsteklasse 'n daling in hul aandeel van huishoudelike inkomste ondervind. In alle bevolkingsgroepe was dit die rykste 10% huishoudings wat die grootste aandeel aan inkomste ontvang het tussen 1991 en 1996. Die studie het ook gevind dat daar 'n verskuiwing van swart Suid-Afrikaanse werknemers van elementêre beroepe na ambagsmanne en masjienoperateurs plaasgevind het. Tussen 1995 en 1999 het die verhouding van anderskleuriges in elementêre beroepe afgeneem ten gunste van ambagsmanne, masjienoperateurs, bestuurders en professionele beroepe. Asiate en Blankes het die kleinste verhouding van hulle werksmag in elementêre beroepe gehad. In 1999 was slegs 5.4 persent van swart Suid-Afrikaners, ouderdom 20 en ouer, in besit van grade, diplomas en sertifikate, in vergelyking met 6.5 persent Kleurlinge, 14.3 persent Asiate en 31.5 persent Blankes. Tot en met Oktober 1999 het 15.5 persent van swart Suid-Afrikaners geen formele opleiding ontvang in vergelyking met 7.9% Kleurlinge, 3.5% Asiate en 0.3% Blankes. Werkloosheid het sedert 1996 in alle bevolkingsgroepe toegeneem sedert die 1996 Suid-Afrikaanse bevolkingsopname.

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