Die konstruksie van makrostrukture : die ontwikkeling van graad 10-leerders se vermoe om makrostrukture te konstrueer en proposisies te herroep deur die verbetering van hul struktureringsvaardighede en vraagstellingsvaardighede

Van Niekerk, Daniel Malan Emmanuel (2001-03)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The construction of macro-structures. Four reading-improvement courses were offered to grade ten pupils in an attempt to improve their general reading skills and more specifically their ability to abstract the gist (macrostructure - Van Dijk and Kintsch, 1983) of texts as well as their ability to recall detail about texts. The macro-structures that learners constructed and the number of propositions recalled from a specific section of the text during a pre-test were compared to the macrostructures they formulated and the number of propositions that they recalled during a post-test. The courses were presented in Afrikaans to four of the five grade 10 classes in a Western Cape school. (The course was also presented in English to the fifth class but that course was not taken into consideration.) The courses were conducted over eight periods of approximately 40 minutes. The content of the first three periods were the same for all four courses. During the first period the learners did a reading exercise in order to determine their reading speed and reading index. During the second and third periods they were taught skimming and study skills respectively. The first course focused on questioning skills in the last five sessions. The second course was presented in order to improve learners' structuring skills. The third course was a combination of the first two courses. A conventional speed reading course was presented to learners who did the fourth course. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether (1) the construction of macro-structures and (2) the recall of propositions from the texts could be ascribed to questioning skills, structuring skills or the combination of those skills. This was done after variance in the dependant variables brought about by differences in intelligence was controlled statistically. The results of this study indicate a statistically significant improvement to construct macro-structures for the learners who completed the courses aimed at improving structuring and questioning/structuring abilities. This improvement can be ascribed to the skills that they acquired during the courses. Traditional schema theories regard schemas or schemata as pre-fabricated structures that need only to be activated by readers. In these courses, however the emphasis was placed on the formation of a structure by the reader; on the activity performed by the reader. Hence it was referred to as a structuring course. During the courses the learners were encouraged not only to "chunk" the content of the texts, but to generalize and to construct the structure of the texts. They were encouraged to use their own words or categories. Several studies indicated that an improvement in the ability to structure texts lead to an improvement in text comprehension. There are five other reasons why structuring the content of texts will facilitate the construction of macro-structures. The first is that when subjects are given the task to remember unorganized material they structure the material to be remembered spontaneously. The second is that the semantic organization of material facilitate recall and the third that normal perception is highly structured. The fourth argument is that experts make effective use of schemes. The fifth argument is that the activity of structuring forces the reader to process the text at a deeper level of processmg. Since it was assumed that top achievers are good readers who have mastered the ability to construct macro-structures efficiently, it was argued that they would benefit more from a course that aimed at improving their question-generating skills. Thus, the fact that there was not a statistically significant improvement in their ability to construct macrostructures can be attributed to the fact that they have already mastered that ability sufficiently. It is also possible to attribute the fact that there was not a statistically significant improvement to the fact that they did not master the question-generating activities. The results of this study also indicated that learners who did the structuring, questioning and questioning/structuring courses improved their ability to recall propositions from the texts in a pre-test to a post-test. Their improved ability to recall propositions, can be ascribed to the fact that detail can be inferred from a hierarchical structure since detail facts are subsumed under thematic propositions. Put differently, micro-propositions can be inferred from macro-propositions. The improvement in the ability of subjects who did the questioning course can be ascribed to the fact that questioning helps to focus attention and that the activity of questioning leads to deeper levels of processing. Three assumptions concerning macro-structures were made in this study. It was assumed that the construction of macro-structures is an automatic and integral part of the (normal) reading process. Readers do not construct macro-structures only when they are required to do so. Good readers construct better macro-structures than poor readers.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die konstruksie van makrostrukture. Vier leesverbeteringskursusse is vir graad 10-leerders aangebied ten einde hul leesvaardighede te probeer verbeter; meer spesifiek, hul vermoe om die kern (die makrostrukture - Van Dijk en Kintsch, 1983) van tekste te kan konstrueer en ook om proposisies van die tekste te kan herroep. Die makrostrukture wat leerders gevorrn het en die getal proposisies wat hulle kon herroep oor 'n spesifieke teksgedeelte nadat 'n leeskursus vir hulle aangebied is, is vergelyk met die makrostrukture wat hulle gevorrn het en getal proposisies wat hulle kon herroep, voordat die kursus vir hulle aangebied is. Die kursusse is in Afrikaans aangebied vir vier van die vyf graad 10-klasse van 'n skiereilandse skool. (Die kursus is ook in Engels aangebied vir die vyfde klas, maar hul resultate is nie in berekening gebring nie, aangesien die inhoud van die tekste verskil het.) Die kursusse het bestaan uit agt lesure van 40 minute. Die inhoud van die eerste drie ·lesure was dieselfde vir al vier kursusse. Tydens die eerste lesuur het die leerders 'n leesoefening gedoen en daarna het hulle hul leesspoed en leesindeks uitgewerk. Tydens die tweede en derde lesuur is vlugleesvaardighede vir die leerders aangeleer. In die eerste kursus IS die klem tydens die laaste vyf lesure geplaas op vraagstellingsvaardighede bene wens vlugleesvaardighede en studievaardighede. Leerders is geleer om kemvrae en detailvrae te forrnuleer. Tydens die tweede kursus is struktureringsvaardighede vir leerders aangeleer in die laaste vyf lesure. Die derde kursus was 'n kombinasie van die eerste twee kursusse. Tydens die vierde kursus is 'n konvensionele spoedleeskursus vir die leerders aangebied. Deur middel van meervoudige regressie-ontledings is vasgestel of vraagstelling, strukturering of die interaksie tussen vraagstelling en strukturering variansie in (1) die konstruksie van rnakrostrukture en (2) die herroep van proposisies of feite verklaar. Dit is gedoen nadat daar statisties gekontroleer is vir die variansie in die afhanklike veranderlikes wat opgewek is deur verskille in intelligensie. Uit die resultate het dit geblyk dat daar 'n statisties beduidende verbetering was by die leerders wat die strukturering-kursus gevolg het en ook by die leerders wat die vraagstelling/strukturering-kursus gevolg het om makrostrukture te konstrueer. Hierdie verbetering sou toegeskryf kon word aan die vaardighede wat hulle tydens die kursus aangeleer het. In teenstelling met skema-teoriee wat van die veronderstelling uitgaan dat skemas vaste strukture is wat slegs deur lesers geaktiveer word, is die klem in hierdie ondersoek geplaas op die aktiewe strukturering van teksinhoude. Dit is die rede waarom na die kursus verwys word as die "strukturering' -kursus. Tydens die kursus is die leerders aangemoedig om nie net die afdelings van die tekste te groepeer nie, maar om te veralgemeen; om die teksinhoude self te struktureer deur hul eie woorde te gebruik. Benewens die feit dat dit uit verskeie ander ondersoeke geblyk het dat die strukturering van tekste deur lesers hulle leesbegrip verbeter het en hulle gehelp het om meer proposisies van 'n teks te kon herroep, sou nog vyf ander argumente ook aangevoer word waarom strukturering die vorming van makrostrukture vergemaklik. Die eerste is dat toetslinge ongestruktureerde geheuemateriaal spontaan struktureer; die tweede dat semantiese organisasie die herroep daarvan vergemaklik; die derde dat ("alledaagse") persepsie hoogs gestruktureerd is en die vierde dat deskundiges skemas effektiewer benut as beginners. Die vyfde argument is dat die aktiwiteit van strukturering dieper prosessering van leesinhoude sal meebring as gewoonlees; wanneer lesers tekste struktureer, word hulle verplig om dit uitvoerig te prosesseer. Die vraagstelling-kursus is aangebied vir die leerders in die klas wat die beste presteer het, aangesien daar van die veronderstelling uitgegaan is dat hulle goeie lesers is en dat goeie lesers alreeds daartoe in staat is om goeie makrostrukture te kan konstrueer. Die feit dat diegene wat die vraagstelling-kursus gevolg het, se vermoe om rnakrostrukture te vorm, nie 'n statisties beduidende verbetering getoon het nie, sou dus moontlik daaraan toegeskryf kon word dat hulle die vaardigheid om goeie makrostrukture te vorm, alreeds in 'n groot mate bemeester het. 'n Ander moontlikheid waarom hul vermoe om makrostrukture te konstrueer, nie 'n statisties beduidende verbetering getoon het nie, is dat hulle nie die vraagstelling-aktiwiteite deeglik bemeester het rue. Uit die resultate van hierdie ondersoek het dit ook geblyk -dat daar 'n statisties beduidende verbetering was in die vermoe van leerders wat die vraagstelling-, strukturering-, asook die vraagstellinglstruktureringkursus gevolg het om na afloop van die leeskursusse meer proposisies oor die betrokke tekste te kon herroep. Die rede waarom die strukturering-kursus effektiewer herroepprestasie in die hand gewerk het, sou toegeskryf kon word aan die feit dat iemand wat 'n struktuur gekonstrueer het, detail kan herroep na aanleiding van die gekonstrueerde raarnwerk. Anders gestel, mikroproposisies sou afgelei kon word van makroproposisies. Die rede waarom die vraagstelling-kursus 'n verbetering van leerders se herroepvermoens meegebring het, sou waarskynlik daaraan toegeskryf kon word dat vraagstelling 'n leser se aandag fokus of rig. Daarby verplig die vraagstelling-aktiwiteit lesers om tekste uitvoerig te prosesseer. Hierdie vraagstelling-aktiwiteit verplig dieper prosessering van leesinhoude as die meer oppervlakkige prosessering wat tydens gewoonlees plaasvind. In hierdie ondersoek is van die verondersteIling uitgegaan dat die vorrmng van makrostrukture 'n outomatiese en integrale deel van die leesproses is. Lesers konstrueer nie net makrostrukture wanneer die leestaak dit vereis nie. Hoewel aIle lesers makrostrukture konstrueer, vorrn goeie lesers beter rnakrostrukture as swak lesers.

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