Die bestuur van verandering in die publieke sektor

Swanepoel, Deon Venter (2001-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The management of change in the South African public sector is facing a number of challenges. An integrated management model for the effective management of change in public sector organisations, which recognises the characteristics and environment of the public sector and integrates different approaches towards the management of organisational change, is not generally known or available to change agents in the public sector. The overall research objective is to develop an integrated management model for the effective management of change in the public sector. The differences and similarities in the management of change in public and private sector organisations will also be examined. Strategic management, organisational development and transformation as approaches towards management of change are analised in terms of processes, techniques, interventions and guidelines to manage the organisation through the change process. The concepts of organisation culture, leadership, power, authority, communication, ethics and role of change agents are studied. International case studies of the transformed public sectors of the United States of America and Britain are examined for guidelines that can be applied to the South African public sector. The case studies revealed that the success of public sector transformation resulted from the application of private sector management principles and practices. From the author's research it was found that changes in the political, economic and socio-cultural environment of the South African public sector, the new Constitution, new legal and policy frameworks, directives for transparency and inclusivity as well as the required social, political and administrative organisational cultures have a strong impact on the process and contents of management of change in the public sector. Supporting evidence was found that the application of strategic .management in the public sector provides direction for organisations, assists in analysing the external environment systematically and promotes the co-ordination of change management activities, provided the characteristics of the public sector are taken into account. Organisational culture can be changed through incremental processes and actions whilst culture replacement can be managed through revolutionary processes. Leaders and change agents should consolidate management and organisational behavioural competencies in an integrative approach towards the management of change. They must also aquire and demonstrate the necessary knowledge and skills to give direction, empower, communicate, validate, advise and inspire people on organisational, group and individual level. The change process requires a well planned and broadly consulted communication plan, structures and channels. Internal change agents (leaders, managers, etcetera) and external change agents (consultants, new members of top management, etcetera) should be appointed as members of a multi-disciplinary transformation team that will plan, facilitate and monitor the change process. Through research, the author has developed an integrated management model for the management of change in the public sector, comprising of 5 phases and 16 steps, some of which should be executed simultaneously and others consecutively to ensure a holistic process and the advantages of integrating the various approaches towards the management of change in the public sector.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bestuur van verandering in die Suid-Afrikaanse publieke sektor kom voor verskeie uitdagings te staan. 'n Geintegreerde bestuursmodel vir die effektiewe bestuur van verandering in publieke-sektor-organisasies, wat die aard en omgewing van die publieke sektor erken en verskeie benaderings tot die bestuur van organisasieverandering integreer, is nie algemeen aan veranderingsagente in die publieke sektor bekend of beskikbaar nie. Die oorkoepelende navorsingsdoel is om 'n ge"integreerde bestuursmodel vir die effektiewe bestuur van verandering in die publieke sektor te ontwikkel. Die wesenlikheid van verskille en ooreenkomste in die bestuur van verandering in die privaat- en publieke-sektor-organisasies word ondersoek. Strategiese bestuur, asook organisasie-ontwikkeling en -transformasie, word ontleed as benaderings tot bestuur van verandering in terme van prosesse, tegnieke, intervensies en riglyne wat gevolg kan word om organisasies deur die veranderingsproses te bestuur. Die konsepte van organisasiekultuur, leierskap, mag, gesag, kommunikasie, etiek en die rol van veranderingsagente word ondersoek. Internasionale gevallestudies van die getransformeerde publieke sektore van die Verenigde State van Amerika en Brittanje word ondersoek vir riglyne wat in die Suid-Afrikaanse publieke sektor toegepas kan word. Die gevallestudies het aan die lig gebring dat die suksesvolle publieke-sektortransformasies die gevolg was van die toepassing van privaatsektorbestuursbeginsels. Uit die skrywer se navorsing is bevind dat die politieke, ekonomiese en sosio-kulturele omgewing van die Suid-Afrikaanse publieke sektor, die nuwe Grondwet, verskeie nuwe wetgewende en beleidsraamwerke en direktiewe aangaande deursigtigheid, inklusiwiteit sowel as die vereiste sosiale, politieke en administratiewe organisasiekulture, 'n sterk impak op die proses en program vir die bestuur van verandering in die publieke sektor het. Ondersteunende bewys is gevind dat, met inagname van die unieke aard van die publieke sektor, strategiese bestuursprosesse rigtinggewend vir die publieke-sektor-organisasies is. Hierdie bestuursprosesse help om veranderings in die eksterne omgewing sistematies te ontleed, en dit bevorder die koordinerinq van veranderingsaktiwiteite. Veranderingsagente moet toesien dat bestuurskundigheid met organisasiegedragskundigheid gekonsolideer word in 'n qeinteqreerde benadering tot die bestuur van verandering. Organisasiekultuurverandering kan deur inkrementele prosesse en aksies plaasvind terwyl organisasiekultuurvervanging deur revolusionere prosesse plaasvind. Leiers wat verandering effektief wil lei moet paslike kundigheid en vaardighede bekom en demonstreer ten einde rigtinggewend, stroombelynend, bemagtigend, kommunikerend, fasiliterend, adviserend en inspirerend op organisasie-, groep- en individuele vlak te wees tydens organisasieverandering. Die veranderingsproses vereis 'n kommunikasieprogram en kommunikasiestrukture en -kanale wat deeglik gekonsulteer, beplan en ge'implementeer is. Interne veranderingsagente (Ieiers, bestuurders, ensovoorts), en eksterne veranderingsagente (konsultante, nuwe lede van topbestuur, ensovoorts), behoort as lede van 'n multi-dissiplinere transformasiespan aangestel te word om die veranderingsproses te beplan, te fasiliteer en te moniteer. Die skrywer het 'n qeintegreerde bestuursmodel vir die bestuur van verandering in die publieke sektor uit die navorsing ontwikkel, wat uit 5 fases en 16 stappe bestaan. Sommige van die stappe behoort gelyktydig en ander stappe agtereenvolgend uitgevoer te word ten einde 'n holistiese proses en die voordeel van die integrasie van verskeie benaderings tot die bestuur van verandering in die model te verseker.

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