A semantic and syntactic analysis of break and bend verbs in Zulu

Malinga, Bongiwe Bernadette (2001-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The subject of this study is Break and Bend verbs in isiZulu, which can be classified as verbs of change of state. This study examines the semantic as well as the syntactic analysis of these verbs of change of state in Zulu. Semantically Bend verbs are divided into verbs denoting the bending of body parts, e.g: thoba, khothema, qomfa, bhena, guqa, vosho, and verbs that denote the bending of body parts as well as physical objects, e.g. goba, qethuka/qethula as shown in the sentences below: Indoda igobe ucingo The man bent the wire. Indoda ithe qethu ikhanda The man bent the head backwards. Inkosikazi igobe amadolo The woman bent the knees. Uthe qethu isigxobo He made the pole bend backwards. The study will demonstrate that Break verbs are semantically divided into verbs denoting break or fracture, e.g. aphula/aphuka; those denoting "break off" e.g. nqamuka/nqamula; a verb denoting "to smash", e.g. fahlaza/fahlaka; those denoting " crack", e.g. chachamba, verbs meaning "to tear", e.g. dabula/dabuka; verbs denoting "to demolish", e.g. bhidliza/bhidlika and verbs denoting "to break open", e.g. havuka I havula. Syntactically, Break predicates may occur as ideophones, which are ergative with transitive/intransitive alternation, e.g. aphulaj aphuka, In addition, Break predicates may consist of ideophones with verbal suffixes: [-k-] is the suffix of intransitive ideophone [-I-] or [-z-] is the suffix of transitive ideophone Intransitive ideophone: Intambo ithe nqamu The rope broke Intransitive verb with [-k-]: Intambo inqamukile The rope broke Transitive ideophone: Indoda ithe nqamu intambo The man broke the rope Transitive verb with [-1-]: Indoda inqamule intambo. The man broke a rope Transitive verb with [-z-]: Indoda iphoqoze intambo. The man broke a bone The study demonstrates that with Bend verbs there are two ergative verbs, namely thoba and goba. -- The study further demonstrates that Bend verbs are mostly intransitive with a shadow argument; there is an ideophone qethu, which takes the transitive / intransitive alternation with the suffix [-k-] for the intransitive and [-1-] for the transitive alternation, respectively. The study provides evidence that Break and Bend verbs are characterised by specific selection restrictions as well as event structures. Some alternations were also investigated in the study, such as the Possessive alternation and Instrument-Subject alternation. Lastly, the Lexical conceptual paradigm and the Lexical Inheritance Structure of each verb were examined.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die onderwerp van hierdie studie is Breek en Buig werkwoorde in isiZulu, wat geklassifiseerword as werkwoorde van toestandverandering. Hierdie studie ondersoek die semantiese en die sintaktiese analise van die werkwoordtipe van toestandverandering in isizulu. Buigwerkwoorde word semanties ingedeel in werkwoorde wat die buig van liggaamsdeleaandui, byvoorbeeld: thoba, khothema, qomfa, bhena, guqa, vosho, en werkwoorde wat die buig van liggaamsdele sowel as die fisiese objekte aandui, byvoorbeeld: goba, qethuka/qethula, soos aangedui word in die sinne hieronder: Indoda igobe ucingo Die man het die draad gebuig Indoda ithe qethu ikhanda Die man het sy kop agteroor gebuig Inkosikazi igobe amadolo Die vrou het (haar) knieë gebuig Uthe qethu isigxobo Hy het die paal agtertoe gebuig. Hierdie studie toon aan dat Breek-werkwoorde semanties ingedeel kan word in werkwoorde wat "breek" aandui, bv. aphula/aphuka: werkwoorde wat "afbreek" aandui, bv. nqamuka/nqamula; werkwoorde wat "flenters breek" aandui, bv. fahlaza/fahlaka; werkwoorde wat "bars" aandui, bv. chachamba, werkwoorde wat "skeur" aandui, bv. dabula/dabuka; werkwoorde wat "ruineer" aandui, bv. bhidliza/bhidlika en werkwoorde wat "oopbreek" aandui, bv. havuka/havula. Breek-predikate kan sintakties as ideofone verskyn, wat ergatief (ergative) is met 'n transitief/intransitief alternasie, bv.. aphula/aphuka. Voorts kan Breek-predikate ook verskyn as ideofone met werkwoordagtervoegsels: [-k-] is die suffiks van die intransitiewe ideofoon [-1-] of [-z-] is die suffiks van die transitiewe ideofoon Intransitiewe ideofoon: Intambo ithe nqamu Die tou het gebreek Intransitiewe werkwoord met [-k-]: Intambo inqamukile Die tou het gebreek Transitiewe ideofoon: Indoda ithe nqamu intambo Die man het die tou gebreek Transitiewe werkwoord met [-1-]: Indoda inqamule intambo. Die man het die tou gebreek Transitiewe werkwoord met l-e-l: Indoda iphoqoze umlenze Die man het die been gebreek Die studie toon aan dat met Buigwerkwoorde, twee ergatiewe werkwoorde gevind is, naamlik thoba en goba. Die studie toon ook aan dat Buigwerkwoorde meestal intransitiewe werkwoorde is wat met 'n skadu-argument verskyn. Daar is 'n ideofoon qethu, wat die transitief/intransitief alternasie vertoon met die suffiks [-k-] vir die intransitief en [-I-] vir die transitief alternasie, respektiewelik Die studie bied bewys daarvoor dat Breek- en Buigwerkwoorde gekenmerk word deur seleksiebeperkings en gebeure ('event') strukture. Sommige alternasies is ook ondersoek in die studie, byvoorbeeld die Possessief alternasie en Instrument-Subjek alternasie. Laastens, is die leksikaal-konseptuele paradigma en die Leksikale-erwingstruktuur van elke werkwoord ondersoek.

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