An investigation into the shorthaul transport of pulpwood in South Africa

Ackerman, Pierre Alexander (2001-12)

Thesis (MScFor)--Stellenbosch University 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ackerman PA. 2001. An Investigation into the Shorthaul Transport of Pulpwood in South Africa. M.Sc. in Forestry thesis. University of Stellenbosch. 178 pp Shorthaul transport also known as secondary intermediate transport (SIT), a unique feature of pulpwood transport in South Africa, is an additional transport phase within traditional secondary transport. SIT originates at a roadside landing or depot and terminates at another depot, rail siding or merchandising area (not the final destination). The reason for the addition of SIT into the transport chain is identified as the steady decline of forest road conditions to the extent that highway vehicles are unable to reach roadside landings, necessitating the use of intermediate storage sites, from where the timber is once again loaded and transported to final destination. An industry survey established that the decline of forest road conditions are related to excessively high road densities, insufficient funding for road maintenance/upgrading and the lack of understanding by landowners of the importance of maintaining forest road infrastructure. Total funding, by pulpwood companies on roads have shown an increase of R18.55 million from 1997 to 2000, however, subsequent surveys have indicated, that despite this increase in funding, the forest road conditions continue deteriorating. Of the total annual pulpwood intake of 9.39 million tonnes for 1998, 3.7 million tonnes are subject to SIT. Of this 3.7 million tonnes, 2.5 million tonnes are transported from stump to depot and 1.2 million tonnes are transported from landing to depot. The survey identified the agricultural tractor and semi-trailer as the most favoured transport system between stump or landing and depot, responsible for transporting 2.22 million tonnes annually. For 1998, manual loading and three wheel log loaders accounted for the loading of 0.6 and 2.1 million tonnes respectively of the 3.7 million tonnes subject to SIT. This survey information, assisted by newly developed terminology, was used to develop transport scenarios for the economic analysis of total cost of the different transport phases. A network analysis model and pixel-based geographic information system (GIS) were combined to analyse the various transport scenarios within three study areas in the KwaZulu/Natal Midlands, employing SIT on poor, high-density road networks. The simple pixel-based GIS contained information on the forest road network, surface cover and slopes. The results of the economic analysis highlighted the need for the reduction of road network density and for the improvement of the remaining network. This would eliminate the need for extended primary transport and allow the use of highway vehicles transporting from the compartment roadside to and past plantation exits. Results show an average annual cost penalty to the industry, by maintaining SIT, to be R43.25 million or R8.24/m3 . By not employing SIT the industry will potentially save R4.60 for every tonne of the 9.4 million tonnes consumed by the pulpwood processing plants during 1998. Key words: Network analysis. Pixel-based GIS. Timber transport. Secondary transport. Secondary intermediate transport. Secondary terminal transport. Extended primary transport. Primary transport. Dirichlet tessellations. Shorthaul. Note: Throughout this document a full stop (.) is used as a decimal separator.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ackerman PA. 2001.'n Ondersoek na die kortafstand vervoer van pulphout in Suid- Afrika. MSc in Bosbou tesis. Universiteit van Stellenbosch. 178 pp. sekondere intermediere vervoer (SIV), 'n addisionele vervoer-fase binne tradisionele sekondere houtvervoer, is 'n unieke kenmerk van pulphout vervoer in Suid-Afrika. SIV begin op pad, by 'n spesifieke vak of depot en eindig by 'n ander depot, syspoor of verwerkingsgebied (nie die finale bestemming nie). Aangesien die toestand van bospaaie toenemend verswak en omdat swaarpadvervoer nie langer vakke kan bereik nie, word vervoerkontrakteurs al hoe meer gedwing om van depots gebruik te maak waarheen hout deur middel van SIV vervoer moet word. Die hout word dan weer daar gelaai en na 'n verwerkingsfabriek vervoer deur middel van swaarpadvervoer. 'n Landwye opname het getoon dat die swak toestand van bospaaie toegeskryf kan word aan oormatige paddigthede, onvoldoende befondsing vir die instandhouding/ opgradering van paaie en 'n gebrek aan begrip vir die belangrikheid van die onderhoud van pad infrastruktuu r. Die totale kostes aan padverbeterings en opgraderings in die pulphout bedryf, het van 1997 tot 2000 met R18.55 miljoen toegeneem. Verdere opnames toon egter dat ten spyte van hierdie verhoging in befondsing, die toestand van bospaaie steeds onbevredigend is. Van die totale jaarlikse pulphout inname van 9.39 miljoen ton gedurende 1998, word 3.7 miljoen ton aan SIV blootgestel. Van die volume word 2.5 en 1.2 miljoen ton onderskeidelik vanaf die stomp en pad na depots vervoer. Die opname het ook landboutrekkers met leunwaens ge·identifiseer as die gewildste houtvervoer middel tussen die stomp/pad en depots. Hande-arbeid en driewielbloklaaiers is op hulle beurt verantwoordelik vir die laai van onderskeidelik 0.6 en 2.1 miljoen ton pulphout wat deur middel van SIV vervoer word. Inligting uit die opname ondersteun deur nuutgeskepte vakterminologie, is gebruik om verskillende vervoersisteme vir die ekonomiese analise van totale koste van die verskillende vervoerfases te bereken. 'n Netwerk analise model en pixel gebaseerde GIS is in kombinasie gebruik om verskillende vervoer scenarios in drie areas in Kwa-Zulu Natal te ontleed, wat gebruik maak van SIV op swak bospaaie met hoenetwerkdigthede. Die eenvoudige pixel-gebaseerde GIS het inligting weergegee oor bospadnetwerke, oppervlakbedekking en hellings. Die behoefte aan die vermindering van paddigtheid en die verbetering van bospaaie as sulks, is deur die resultate van die ekonomiese ontleding na vore gebring. Dit sal die behoefte vir uitgebreide primers vervoer uitskakel en die gebruik van tradisionele swaar padvoertuie moontlik maak. Die resultate van hierdie opname toon dat die bedryf addisioneel gemiddeld R43.25 miljoen/jaar of R8.24/m3 betaal vir die 3.7 miljoen ton wat onderhewig is aan SIV. Vir die totale 9.4 miljoen m3 het SIV die maatskappye gedurende 1998 R4.60 meer gekos vir elke m3 wat vervoer was. Sleutelwoorde: Netwerkanalise. Houtvervoer. Sekondere vervoer. sekondere intermediere verveer. Sekondere terminale vervoer. VerJengde prirnere vervoer. Kortafstand vervoer. Pixel-gebaseerde GIS Nota: In hierdie document word deurgans 'n punt (.) gebruik om desimale van heelgetalle te skei.

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