A model for the implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) in the white fish industry

Villet, William de Gouret (2001-03)

Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Fish and shellfish are, with very few exceptions, generally considered safe. Food safety laws in many parts of the world are, however, requiring companies to implement programs such as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) as a means of assuring food safety from harvest to consumption. In South Africa, fishing companies wishing to export products to countries such as the European Union (EU), the United Sates (US), et cetera have, over the past number of years, been required to implement HACCP. Various issues are, however at stake with regards to the successful implementation of HACCP and thus this study project is primarily focused on the application of the HACCP system to the white fish industry. The method of study involved consultation with various local authorities in order to highlight existing HACCP problems within the South African White Fish Industry. A literature survey was conducted to ascertain the requirements of various countries and international organisations and iii addition to gain an in-depth knowledge as to theworking requirements of HACCP. Prior to setting in place a HACCP system, the model reviews in detail the HACCP manual requirements and prerequisite programs required. The prerequisite programs are not limited to but include good manufacturing practices, operation and sanitation, pest control, traceability and recall procedures, customer complaint procedures, chemical control program and training. Process flow diagrams need to be developed and verified for each process and product. Once completed an analysis of the various biological, chemical and physical hazards that are likely to affect the safety of the product is conducted. The seven principles of HACCP are clarified together with how they may best be implemented and monitored, taking in to consideration the various parameters of each fish processing establishment. A brief introduction about the relationship between the HACCP system, ISO 9000 and total quality management (TOM) and the advantages and disadvantages of each system is included. The study project is completed with recommendations for further study in other food processing industries. Recommendations include, but are not limited to ensuring that current and new legislation be regularly monitored, HACCP models be developed for industries such as the shellfish industry, et cetera and that, where possible, harmonisation of the requirements be internationally agreed upon.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Oor die algemeen word vis en skulpvis, met 'n paar uitsonderings, as veilig beskou. Internasionaal word daar deur die voedsel veiligheidswette vereis dat maatskappye aan 'n standaard naamlik HACCP ( Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) voldoen wat verseker dat die voedsel vanaf sy oorspronklike bron tot en met by die verbruiker veilig is vir gebruik. In Suid Afrika, word oor die laaste aantal jare van alle vismaatskappye wat vis wil uitvoer na Europeuse lande of die Verenigde state, verwag om HACCP te implimenteer. Verskeie kwessies is op die spel met betrekking tot die suksesvolle implimentering van HACCP en daarom word hierdie projek gefokus op die suksesvolle implimenteering van die HACCP beginsel in die witvis bedryf. Vir die studie is plaaslike owerhede genader om vas te stel waar bestaande probleme met betrekking tot die witvis bedryf is. 'n Literatuur studie is uitgevoer om te bepaal wat die behoeftes is van verskillende lande en internationale instansies en ook om 'n indiepte kennis te bekom vir die funksionerings vereistes van HACCP. Die model beskryf volledig wat vereis word om 'n HACCP handleiding saam te stel en die voorvereiste programme wat benodig word alvorens 'n HACCP plan inwerking gestel kan word. Daar is geen beperkings ten opsigte van die voorvereiste programme nie maar dit sluit die volgende in: goeie vervaardigings praktyke, higiëne bestuur, plaagbeheer, identifiseering en produk ontrekking prosedure, verbruikersklagtes, chemikalië beheer en opleiding. Vir elke proses en produk moet daar 'n vloei diagram opgestel word. Daarna moet 'n ontleding gedoen word van alle moontlike biologiese, chemiese en fisiese gevare wat die veiligheid van 'n produk kan benadeel. Verder bespreek die studie die sewe beginsels van HACCP, die implimentering en monitering daarvan met inagneming van die uniekheid van elke prosesaanleg. 'n Kort oorsig oor die verwantskap tussen HACCP, ISO 9000 en "TQM ( Total Quality Management)" met elk se voor en nadele word ook bespreek. Die studie word afgesluit met aanbevellings vir verdere studies in die voedselprosesseringsindustrie, oor die monitering van huidige en toekomstige wetgewing, die ontwikkeling van HACCP modelle en harmonisering van internasionale en plaaslike vereistes soos ooreengekom.

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