Tin-bemiddeling van inositolderivatisering

Prinsloo, Mare-Loe (2000-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this thesis is to use tin-mediated reactions to differentiate between the four zones in the myo-inositol ring that consists of five contiguous equatorial and one axial hydroxyl groups. It is expected to give chemical control over the hexitol that can be put to good use in commercializing the phosphate derivatives of myo-inositol that are of pharmaceutical value. As point of departure 1,2-0-cyclohexylidene-myo-inositol (II.I) was synthesized that contains a tetrol with one end adjacent to an axial acetal oxygen and the other end adjacent to an equatorial acetal oxygen. The selective protection of position 3 (Dmyo- inositol) was investigated. Various problems lead to the selective silylation of the acetal at position 5. The silane forms the basis of the subsequent investigation because the cyclitol is now divided into an isolated mono-ol and a trans-diol allowing for easier differentiation between the various hydroxyl groups. It was indeed possible to differentiate the trans-diol from the mono-ol by using carbonylation and allylidenation. Ring closure occurs in both cases. In the carbonylation case the resultant five-membered ring is less stable than that of the allylidene due to the Sp² hybridized carbon atom of the carbonate compared to theSp³ hybridized carbon of the allylidene group. Preliminary work was done on the racerrue 1,2-0-cyclohexylidene-myo-inositol (II.VII) in order to use the acquired technology on the chiral camphor analog. The transition from racemic to chiral proved problematic since the camphor acetal is difficult to prepare and its selective silylation differs from that observed for cyc1ohexylidene. The camphor acetal itself was silylated in the process. (S)-( -)-Camphanic chloride was therefore used as chiral auxiliary in the protection of position six of the racemic 1,2,3,4,5-protected myo-inositol, thus solving the problems encountered in the protection of position six whilst combining the protection and chiral induction steps. The resultant diastereomers could both be used in the synthesis of IP₃ and IP₄ respectively, eliminating the disposal of half ofthe product. This project lead to the development of useful chiral differentially protected myoinositol derivatives, which could be useful in synthesis of various other myo-inositol derivatives. Besides the synthesis of useful chiral differentially protected myo-inositol derivatives, this investigation developed new applications in the tin-mediated derivatization of sugars. The following compounds were synthesized during this investigation. Bold numbers indicates novel compounds.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie proefskrif is om met behulp van tin-bemiddelde reaksies onderskeid te maak tussen die vier sones in die mia-inositolring, wat bestaan uit vyf aaneenlopende ekwatoriale hidroksigroepe en een aksiale hidroksigroep. Die verwagting was om vinnig, effektiewe chemiese beheer oor die genoemde heksitol te verkry om sodoende chemies en kommersiëel munt te slaan uit die farmaseutiese werking van die fosfaatafgeleides van mia-inositol. As eerste uitgangspunt is 1,2-0-sikloheksilideen-mia-inositol (II.I) berei, wat lei tot die vorming van 'n tetrol waarvan die een punt naasliggend aan 'n aksiale asetaalsuurstofatoom en die ander punt naasliggend aan 'n ekwatoriale asetaalsuurstof is. As voortsetting is die selektiewe beskerming van posisie 3 (D-mia-inositol) ondersoek. Velerlei probleme lei tot die selektiewe sililering van die asetaal by posisie 5 (II.VII). Die silieleter vorm die basis van al die daaropvolgende ondersoeke omdat dit die siklitol in 'n trans-diol en 'n geïsoleerde mono-ol verdeel en die verskillende hidroksigroepe daarvan makliker van mekaar onderskei kan word. Dit is inderdaad moontlik om die trans-diol van die mono-ol te onderskei deur karbonilering of allilidenering. In albei gevalle vind ringannulering plaas. In die geval van die karbonilering is die gevormde vyflidring minder stabiel as wat die geval is vir die allilideengroep. Die rede hiervoor is dat die karbonaatkoolstofatoom Sp²- gehibridiseer is terwyl die ooreenstemmende koolstofatoom van die allilideen Sp³- gehibridiseer is. Ontwikkelingswerk is op die rasemiese 1,2-0-sikloheksilideen-mia-inositol (II.VII) gedoen ten einde dit op die chirale kamferasetaalanaloog toe te pas. Die oorgang van rasemies na chiraal is egter problematies aangesien die kamferasetaal moeiliker vorm en selfs as dit vorm toon die reaksies, soos byvoorbeeld die sililering, ander selektiwiteit as wat die geval is vir die rasemiese mengsel. Sililering van die kamferasetaallei tot sililering van die kamfer self. (S)-(-)-kamfanoïelchloried is gevolglik as chirale hulpreagens gebruik om posisie 6 van die rasemiese 1,2,3,4,5-beskermde-mia-inositol te beskerm. Hierdie benadering los die problematiek rondom die beskerming van posisie 6 sowel as die induksie van chiraliteit op. Die twee diastereomere wat op hierdie wyse vorm, kan albei in die sintese van onderskeidelik IP₃ en IP₄ gebruik word, wat die verlies aan helfte van die produk verhoed. Behalwe die daarstelling van bruikbare chirale differensiëel-beskermde mioinositolafgeleides wat gebruik kan word om 'n verskeidenheid chirale mioinositolafgeleides te berei, het hierdie ondersoek nuwe toepassings in tin-bemiddelde derivatisering van suikers daargestel. Die volgende verbindings is gedurende die verloop van hierdie ondersoek gesintetiseer, waar verbindings vir die eerste keer gesintetiseer is word dit aangedui deur die verbinding se nommer vet (bold) te druk.

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