Postharvest manipulation of fruit colour in apples and pears

Marais, Evelyn (2000-04)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Red colour development on bi-coloured apples and pears ensures better prices for producers. The use of postharvest irradiation to improve colour has been successful on apples, and the objectives of this thesis were to optimise conditions during irradiation for apples and to evaluate the effects of irradiation on pears. 'Cripp's Pink' apples responded to postharvest irradiation with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lights by developing a red blush, whereas the response to irradiation with UV 8 plus incandescent lights was less effective. '8raeburn' apples held at -0.5°C for 4 or 8 weeks prior to irradiation showed a decrease in hue angle and an increase in anthocyanin concentration after 72 hours of irradiation with HPS lamps. In 'Forelle' pears treated in the same way, neither colour development nor anthocyanin synthesis was affected by irradiation. '8raeburn' and 'Cripp's Pink' apples picked weekly for 5 weeks until the optimum harvest date were irradiated with HPS lights. A significant increase in fruit colour was only measured in mature fruit of both cultivars. 'Cripp's Pink' apples were harvested from two production areas with different microclimates, namely, Ceres and Grabouw, and stored for 0, 2 or 5 days at -0.5 °C before irradiation for 120 hours at either 6°C or 20°C. Fruit from Ceres that were irradiated immediately after harvest developed better colour at 6 °C than at 20°C. The differences between fruit irradiated at the two temperatures were no longer significant after 5 days of cold storage prior to irradiation. Fruit from Grabouw consistently developed better colour when irradiated at 6°C than at 20°C. Colour development slightly after 5 days of cold storage prior to irradiation. In another experiment, fruit from both areas were stored at -0.5°C for 20 days before irradiation at either 6°C or 6/20°C. The fluctuating temperature regime resulted in decreases in hue angle of 70° and 65° for the fruit from Grabouw and Ceres, respectively. The decreases were smaller (±200) when fruit were irradiated at 6°C. The hue angle value of well-coloured 'Cripp's Pink' apples held at 3rC under HPS lights for 144 hours increased from 29.3° to 48.3°, and anthocyanin concentration decreased from 739.9 IJg·g·1to 283.6 IJg·g·1. Control fruit held at the same temperature in the dark did not show any change in hue angle value or anthocyanin concentration. 'Bon Rouge' and 'Red d' Anjou', two full red pear cultivars, irradiated with HPS lights for 72 hours, showed no significant changes in hue angle. 'Forelle' pears, harvested with or without attached leaves, were irradiated with HPS at two temperature regimes, 20°C and 200/6°C. The resulting decreases in hue angle were attributed to yellowing and not red colour formation. In conclusion, the response of apples to postharvest irradiation was affected by maturity and temperature, while pears failed to respond at all.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Rooikleurontwikkeling van twee-kleur appels en pere verseker beter pryse vir die produsente. Na-oesbestraling om kleur te verbeter is al suksesvol uitgevoer op appels, en die doelwit van hierdie tesis was om die kondisies vir appels gedurende bestraling te optimaliseer en om die effek van bestraling op pere te evalueer. 'Cripp's Pink' appels het reageer op na-oesbestraling met hoëdruk-natriumligte (HDN) deur 'n rooi blos te ontwikkel, terwyl die reaksie op bestraling met UV-B plus gloeilamplig minder effektief was. 'Braebum' appels opgeberg by -O.5aC vir 4 of 8 weke voor bestraling het 'n afname in die kleurskakeringswaarde getoon, asook 'n toename in antosianienkonsentrasie na 72 uur se bestraling met HDN ligte. 'Forelle' pere wat dieselfde behandeling ontvang het, het geen kleurontwikkeling en geen antosianienontwikkeling getoon na bestraling nie. 'Braebum' en 'Cripp's Pink' appels wat weekliks geoes is vir 5 weke tot die optimum oesdatum is bestraal met HDN ligte. Slegs die volwasse vrugte van beide kultivars het 'n betekenisvolle toename in kleur getoon. 'Cripp's Pink' appels is geoes in twee produksie areas met verskillende mikroklimate, naamlik Ceres en Grabouw. Vrugte is opgeberg vir 0, 2 of 5 dae by -O.5aC voor bestraling vir 120 uur by of 6aC of 20aC. Vrugte van Ceres wat onmiddellik na oes bestraal is het beter kleur ontwikkel by 6aC as by 20aC. Kleurontwikkeling by vrugte bestraal by 6 of 20aC het nie verskil wanneer vrugte vooraf opgeberg was by -~5ac vir 5 dae nie. Vrugte van Grabouw het konstant beter kleur pntwikkel wanneer bestraling by 6°C eerder as 20°C plaasgevind het. In die volgende eksperiment, was beide die vrugte van Ceres en Grabouw vir 20 dae opgeberg by -o.soC voor bestraling by 6°C of 6°/20°C. Die flukturerende temperatuur regime het afnames van 70° en 65° in kleurskakeringswaarde getoon vir die vrugte van Grabouw en Ceres, respektiewelik. Die afname was kleiner (±200)wanneer vrugte by 6°C bestraal is. 'Cripp's Pink' appels wat goed gekleur was en opgeberg is by 3rC terwyl dit blootgestel is aan HDN ligte vir 144 uur, het 'n toename van 29.30 tot 48.3° getoon vir die kleurskakeringswaarde, en antosianienkonsentrasie het afgeneem van 739 I'g.g-1 tot 283.6 I1g.g-1. Die kontrole vrugte opgeberg by dieselfde temperatuur in die donker het geen verandering in beide die kleurskakeringswaarde of die antosianienkonsentrasie getoon nie. 'Bon Rouge' en 'Red d' Anjou', twee volrooi peerkultivars, is bestraal met HDN ligte vir 72 uur en het geen betekenisvolle verandering in kleur getoon nie. 'Forelle' pere, geoes met of sonder 'n aangehegte stingelsegment, is bestraal met HDN ligte by twee verskillende temperatuur regimes, nl. 20°C of 20/6°C. Die afname in kleurskakeringswaarde is aan vergeling toegeskryf eerder as aan rooikleurontwikkeling. Ter opsomming, die reaksie van appels op na-oes bestraling is beïnvloed deur rypheid en temperatuur, terwyl pere geen reaksie getoon het nie.

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