Parks that cross the borderline : transnational co-operation in Southern Africa

Morton, Nicola (2000-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this era of globalisation, the world is becoming more economically, politically and ecologically interdependent, that is, there is a growing mutual vulnerability between actors. The conditions of growing interdependence produce specific challenging circumstances for the achievement of particular goals, -includinq that of sustainable development. The Southern African context holds further obstacles to such development, which include poverty, inequality, a history of racial conflict and colonialism, and a regional economy on the semi-periphery of the global economy. It is my assertion that it is in the mutual self-interest of states and other stakeholders (e.g. communities) to approach this dilemma through transnational co-operation under the ethical umbrella of sustainable development. Thus this thesis seeks to discover to what extent the construction of Transborder Conservation Areas (TBCAs), relatively large areas which straddle the borders between two or more countries and cover natural systems incorporating one or more protected areas, can meet the criteria of sustainable development, given these conditions. The three primary criteria used for measuring sustainable development are community-based development; close linkages between the environment and development; and co-operation on all levels. The Kgalagadi TBCA, formally recognised on the 7th of April 1999 between South Africa and Botswana, serves as the case study. The conceptual framework used for the analysis is a theory of cooperation, as it applies to the field of International Relations. The key concepts employed here are those of interdependence, co-operation, sustainable development and institutionalisation. The research centers around three key issues: If sustainable development is the way forward for Southern Africa, do TBCAs reflect and fulfill the criteria as set forth by sustainable development? What does the experience of TBCAs in Southern Africa tell us about co-operation, recognising that TBCAs can only succeed if it has a sound base in the awareness and engagement of people? And, how best can decision-makers go about establishing TBCAs? Ultimately the thesis is a call to Southern African countries to embrace this new form of utilising the environment.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie era van globalisering is die wêreld besig om ekonomies, polities en ekologies meer interafhanklik te word, met ander woorde, daar is 'n toenemende wedersydse kwesbaarheid tussen akteurs. Toenemende interafhanklikheid produseer spesifieke uitdagings ten opsigte van die bereiking van sekere doelwitte, insluitend volgehoue ontwikkeling. Daar is besondere hindernisse op die weg na volgehoue ontwikkeling in Suidelike Afrika, is byvoorbeeld armoede, ongelykheid, en verlede gekenmerk deur rassekonflik en kolonialisme, asook en regionale ekonomie op die semi-periferie van die globale ekonomie. Dit is in die wedersydse belang van state en ander betrokke partye (bv. gemeenskappe) om hierdie dilemma te benader deur middel van transnasionale samewerking onder die etiese sambreel van volgehoue ontwikkeling. Hierdie tesis probeer vasstel tot watter mate die skep van Transnasionale Bewaringsgbiede, of sogenaamde "Vredesparke" (Transborder Conservation Areas = TBCAs), d.w.s. relatiewe groot areas aan weerskante van die grens(-e) tussen twee of meer lance en wat natuurlike stelsels dek wat ten minste een beskermde gebied inkorporeer, kan voldoen aan die kriteria vir volgehoue ontwikkeling, gegewe die bogenoemde konteks. Die drie primêre kriteria wat gebruik word om volgehoue ontwikkeling te meet is gemeenskapsgebaseerde ontwikkeling; die hegtheid van die verhouding tussen die omgewing en ontwikkeling; en samewerking op alle vlakke. Die Kgalagadi TBCA, amptelik op 7 April 1999 tussen Suid-Afrika en Botswana erken, dien as die gevallestudie. Die konseptueie raamwerk wat gebruik word in die analise is 'n teorie van samewerking, soos dit van toepassing is op die veld van Internasionale Betrekkinge. Die sleutelkonsepte wat gebruik word is interafhanklikheid, samewerking, volgehoue ontwikkeling en institusionalisering. Die navorsing sentreer rondom drie sleutelkwessies: lndien volgehoue ontwikkeling die weg vorentoe vir Suidelike Afrika is, weerspiëel en voldoen TBCAs aan die vereistes van volgehoue ontwikkeling? Wat kan ons wys raak oor samewerking na aanleiding van ons ervaring van TBCAs in Suidelike Afrika, gegewe dat TBCAs slegs kan slaag indien dit gefundeer is op gemeenskapsbewustheid- en deelname? Laastens, wat is die beste manier waarvolgens besluitnemers TBCAs kan vestig? Ten slotte is hierdie studie 'n beroep op die besluitnemers In Suidelike Afrika om hierdie nuwe wyse waarop die omgewing benut kan word, te ondersteun.

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