n Handleiding tot die didaktiek van sangonderrig met spesifieke verwysing na onderrig van die registeroorgange van die manstem

Van Heerden, Petrus (2000)

Thesis (MMus) -- University of Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In preparation for the basic teaching in the instruction of the male singing voice, it is essential that the singing teacher becomes thoroughly familiar with the general pedagogical requirements of vocal training. Each of the sections in chapter 1 represents a wide-ranging study by itself but it will be presented in summarized form here. Chapter 2 focus chiefly on basic beginners' instruction which is indispensable for the establishment of a sound singing technique. The teaching principles of beginners' instruction which are set out in this chapter, are based on tested methods recognized internationally by various famous teachers. These teaching methods, together with literary research on this subject, have been condensed empirically over thirty years, into a system of teaching by the writer. The major focus of chapter 3 is on the physiology of the adolescent boy's changing voice. When adolescence sets in, from the age 13 - 15, enormous changes take place in the anatomical-physiological structure of a boy's larynx. These far-reaching changes are brought about by the influence of the sex hormones and consist of complex physical as well as psychological growth stages through which the young boy has to develop. Knowledge of the different stages in voice changes and their individual characteristics of sound are important requirements for voice classification which takes place during the formative training. Chapter 4 focuses on the problematic nature of the transition of the register of the male voice. To prepare for the teaching process of this transition (of the male voice), the teacher should be well-qualified to be able to identify the classification of the registers of the different male voice-types. In addition, he should be totally familiar with the ideal sound typical of the upper registers which would be required from a professional singer on the international stage. "The head register in the male singing voice is often one of the most difficult vocal adjustments to acquire and to maintain ... A well developed operatic head register, 'Vollton der Kopfstimme', is the hall-mark [ ... ] of all well-trained male singers" (Miller 1982: 120). The actualisation of this ideal sound which comes about through copertura-schooling of sound in the upper register is the focal point of this study. Therefore this chapter focuses specially on the ideal sound of the full voice in the upper register versus a cultivated falsetto sound in the upper register. Chapter 5 addresses the implementation of a didactical system by famous singers and singing teachers. Therefore in chapter 5 the focus is placed on the technical training of the secondo passagio by presenting technical exercise and the practical application of the standard vocal repertoire of the male voice. Due to length restrictions of this dissertation, there will be reference only to some technical exercise and examples of repertoire.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: As voorbereiding tot die didaktiese beginsels in sangonderrig van die manstem is dit noodsaaklik dat die sangonderwyser volkome vertroud sal wees met die algemene pedagogiese voorvereistes vir die onderrig van sang. Elkeen van die afdelings in hoofstuk 1 regverdig eintlik 'n omvattende studie in sigself, maar hier word dit samevattend aangebied. Hoofstuk 2 fokus hoofsaaklik op goeie aanvangsonderrig wat onontbeerlik is vir die vestiging van 'n goeie sangtegniek. Samevattend word op die noodsaaklike basiese beginsels van aanvangsonderrig gekonsentreer. Die didaktiese beginsels van aanvangsonderrig wat vanaf hierdie hoofstuk uiteengesit word, is gebaseer op beproefde metodes wat internasionaal deur verskeie beroemde leermeesters erken word. Hierdie onderrigmetodes, tesame met die nagevorsde vakliteratuur, is oor 'n tydperk van dertig jaar op empiriese wyse deur die skrywer gekondenseer tot 'n sisteem van onderrig. Die kemfokus van hoofstuk 3 is op die stemfisiologie van die adolessente seun. Wanneer adolessensie vanaf die ouderdom van dertien tot vyftien jaar by die seun intree, vind daar groot veranderinge in die anatomies-fisiologiese struktuur van die seun se larinks plaas. Hierdie ingrypende veranderinge word teweeg gebring deur die invloed van die geslagshormone en behels fisiek sowel as psigies 'n komplekse groeifase waardeur die jong seun moet ontwikkel. Dit is belangrik dat die pedagoog deeglik vertroud sal wees met hierdie komplekse groeiproses. Kennis van die verskillende stemmutasiestadiums en die individuele klankkarakters daarvan is 'n belangrike voorvereiste vir die stemklassifisering wat by aanvangsonderrig plaasvind. In hoofstuk 4 val die soeklig op die problematiek van registeroorgange by die manstem. As voorbereiding tot die onderrigproses van die registeroorgange van die manstem moet die pedagoog onderleg wees in die klassifisering van die registers van die verskillende manstemtipes. Ook moet hy ten volle vertroud wees met die tipiese klankideaal van die hoëregister wat van 'n professionele sanger op die internasionale verhoog verwag word. "The head register in the male singing voice is often one of the most difficult vocal adjustments to acquire and to maintain . . . A well developed operatic head register, 'Vollton der Kopfstimme', is the hall-mark [ ... ] of all well-trained male singers" (Miller 1982: 120). Die verwesenliking van hierdie klankideaal wat deur copertura-klankgebruik in die hoëregister tot stand kom, is die kemfokus van hierdie studie. Hierdie hoofstuk konsentreer dus sterk op die klankideaal van volstem in die hoëregister versus 'n gekultiveerde falsetklank in die hoëre gister. Vir die verkryging van 'n stabiele hoëregister deur middel van die copertura-tegniek word in hoofstuk 5 betoog vir die toepassing van 'n didaktiese sisteem wat gebaseer is op onderrigmetodes wat beproef is deur beroemde sangers en sangpedagoë. In hoofstuk 5 is dus gekonsentreer op die tegniese skoling van die secondo passaggio deur middel van tegniese oefeninge en die praktiese toepassing daarvan op die standaard sangrepertorium van die manstem. Weens lengtebeperking by hierdie skripsie word daar net na enkele tegniese oefeninge en repertoriumvoorbeelde verwys.

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