Nasionale mededingende voordeel : die Suid-Afrikaanse appelbedryf

Du Toit, Carel van der Merwe (2000-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The deregulation and the following restructuring of the South African fruit industry in 1996 had a significant influence on the decision-making environment that participants in the industry were used to. As new exporters entered the industry many new market opportunities arose. However at this same period in time export-earnings from the most important traditional markets came under pressure. A drastic increase in the supply of fresh apples from other Southern Hemisphere countries like Chile as well as a highly fragmented South African marketing structure are believed to be the most important reasons for the decline in exportearnings. The aim of this study is to focus on the international competitiveness of the South African apple industry in comparison to the competitiveness of the Chilean industry, with specific reference to the competition between the two countries on the European market for fresh apples. The study is introduced by a historical view as well as a glance at recent realities within the South African as well as the Chilean apple industry. Aspects that have lead to the growth and development regarding production as well as exports within both industries will be indicated. Historical international trade performance of both industries is discussed as international trade performance is a prerequisite for international competitiveness. Theoretical principles of competitiveness and competitive advantage is given with specific focus on the most recent theoretical viewpoints concerning competitive advantage and the reaching thereof The work of Michael Porter (1990) is used as a starting point in order to construct a framework with which the national competitive advantage of a specific industry, with a specific nation, can be explained. According to Porter ( 1990) national competitive advantage can be defined as the specific characteristics of a nation's national circumstances that enables a specific industry within that nation to create and maintain competitive advantages. National competitive advantage a measured according to four so-called broad determinants of national competitive advantage, namely industry structure, strategy and competition (first determinant), factor conditions, related and supporting industries and demand conditions as the forth determinant. A number of more recent definitions and describing literature on competitive advantage is used in order to expand Porter's so-called "diamond-analyses" for specific use to analyze an industry that produces a perishable product. An important prerequisite concerning the analyzing of competitiveness, is the presence of a relative or comparative component. Industry specific technical literature is used in order to make comparative descriptions within the above mentioned framework. This framework (expanded Porter-model) is used in order to compare the Chilean apple industry with the South African industry on the basis ofthe four broad determinants of national competitive advantage. In this way a complex description of the varied national and international industry environments within which the two industries operate, is done. It is very clear that international exposure on production as well as on marketing level together with excellent natural resources is the most important contributors to the national competitive advantage of the Chilean apple industry. The exceptional natural resources and very good weather conditions for growing apples together with growers' exposure to consumer demands are important contributors to the production of high quality fruit. Marketers and exporters show valuable market-discipline and they have easy access to relevant market information. These aspects strengthen the competitiveness of the Chilean apple industry. If the South African apple industry want to be competitive in future, it is absolutely essential that scarce resources such as soil and water is well-managed and conserved. International exposure and technological innovation on production level is also very important. Market information will have to be more easily accessible and exporters will have to show significant market discipline. It is also important that there will not be any uncertainties as far as property rights is concerned, as this will scare investors. It is of utmost importance that the South African government will work towards creating a home base that will have a positive effect on the obtaining and the maintaining of national competitive advantage. This study give participants within the South African apple industry a thorough description of the varied decision-making environments to which the Chilean and the South African apple producer is subjected to. Differences within this decision-making environments is emphasized and there is an indication of what the direct influence of this differences have on the South African industry. Possible future changes concerning the various macroenvironments of the two industries is analyzed and an indication is given on how these changes will influence the obtaining and maintaining of national competitive advantage in future.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die deregulering en die gevolglike herstrukturering van die Suid-Afrikaanse vrugtebedryf in 1996 het die besluitnemingsomgewing vir alle deelhouers binne die Suid-Afrikaanse vrugtebedryf drasties verander. Die toetrede van verskeie nuwe uitvoerders het beteken dat nuwe bemarkings-geleenthede benut kon word, maar ongelukkig het uitvoerverdienste op die tradisioneel belangrike markte op dieselfde tydstip onder groot druk gekom. 'n Dramatiese toename in die voorsiening van vars appels vanuit ander Suidelike-Halfrond-lande, soos Chili, tesame met 'n gefragmenteerde Suid-Afrikaanse bemarkings-opset word as die belangrikste redes vir die dating in uitvoerverdienste aangevoer. In hierdie ondersoek word daar gefokus op die internasionale mededingendheid van die Suid-Afrikaanse appelbedryf relatief tot die mededingendheid van die Chileense bedryf, met spesifieke verwysing na die mededinging tussen die twee lande in die Europese mark vir vars appels. Die studie word ingelei deur 'n geskiedkundige oorsig sowel as 'n blik op huidige realiteite binne die Suid-Afrikaanse- sowel as die Chileense appelbedrywe. Die verloop van gebeure wat tot die groei en ontwikkeling ten opsigte van produksie sowel as uitvoere binne beide bedrywe gelei het, word aangedui. Die bereiking van intemasionale handelsukses word as voorvereiste vir intemasionale mededingendheid aangevoer. Geskiedkundige intemasionale handelsprestasie van beide bedrywe word dus ook uiteengesit. 'n Uiteensetting van teoretiese grondbeginsels van mededingendheid en mededingende voordele word aangebied met die fokus op die jongste teoretiese sienings betreffende mededingende voordeel en die bereiking daarvan. Die werk van Micheal Porter (1990) word as vertrekpunt gebruik ten einde 'n raamwerk te konstrueer waarmee die nasionale mededingende voordeel van 'n bepaalde bedryf, gesetel binne 'n bepaalde nasie, omskryf kan word. Volgens Porter (1990) word nasionale mededingende voordeel omskryf as die bepaalde karaktertrekke van 'n nasie se nasionale omstandighede wat spesifieke bedrywe binne daardie nasie in staat stel om mededingende voordele te skep en te behou. Nasionale mededingende voordeel word gemeet aan die hand van vier sogenaamde bree determinante van nasionale mededingende voordeel, naamlik bedryfstruktuur, bedryfstrategie en bedryfskompetisie (wat gesamentlik die eerste determinant vorm), faktorkondisies, verwante en ondersteunende industriee asook vraagtoestande. Hierdie vier determinante omskryf die totale omgewing (home base) waarbinne 'n bepaalde bedryf opereer. Verskeie meer onlangse definisies en beskrywende literatuur betreffende mededingende voordeel is aangewend om Porter (1990) se sogenaamde "diamant-analise" uit te brei en meer toepaslik te maak op 'n bedryf wat 'n bederfbare kommoditeit produseer. 'n Belangrike voorvereiste betreffende die analisering van mededingendheid, is die teenwoordigheid van 'n relatiewe of vergelykende komponent. Bedryfspesifieke tegniese literatuur is dus verder aangewend ten einde vergelykende beskrywings binne die genoemde raamwerk te doen. Die raamwerk (uitgebreide Portermodel) is gebruik ten einde die Chileense appelbedryf met die Suid-Mrikaanse appelbedryf te vergelyk aan die hand van elk van die genoemde determinante van nasionale mededingende voordeel. Op hierdie wyse is 'n komplekse beskrywing van die onderskeie nasionale en internasionale bedryfsomgewings (home bases) waarbinne die twee bedrywe opereer, verkry. Omvattende internasionale blootstelling op produksie- maar veral op bemarkingsvlak tesame met uiters gunstige klimatologiese toestande en baie goeie natuurlike hulpbronne, blyk die belangrikste aspekte te wees wat hydra tot nasionale mededingende voordeel van die Chileense appelbedryf. Die gunstige klimatologiese toestande en die kwaliteit van die natuurlike hulpbronne tesame met die feit dat produsente die verbruikersbehoeftes van die verskillende wereldmarkte ken, dra by tot die produksie van goeie kwaliteit vrugte. Die vaardigheid en hoe vlak van intemasionale blootstelling waaroor bemarkers/uitvoerders beskik, tesame met die toepassing van markdissipline, is verdere aspekte wat die mededingendheid van die Chileense bedryf versterk. Indien die Suid-Afrikaanse appelbedryf in die toekoms steeds mededingend wil wees en nuwe nasionale mededingende voordeel wil skep en handhaaf, is dit van kardinale belang dat beskikbare, skaars hulpbronne soos water en grond oordeelkundig bestuur en aangewend moet word. Intemasionale blootstelling en tegnologiese innovasie met betrekking tot produksie is van kardinale belang. Dit is verder belangrik dat mark-inligting meer toeganklik sal word en dat uitvoerders die nodige markdissipline sal toepas en handhaaf. Dit is belangrik dat onsekerheid betreffende eiendomsreg vermy sal word omdat dit kan lei tot beleggerswantroue. Dit is van kardinale belang dat die Suid-Afrikaanse regering sal streef daarna om 'n home base te skep wat positiefbydra tot die bereiking en handhawing van nasionale mededingende voordeel. Die studie bied dus aan deelhouers binne die Suid-Amerikaanse appelbedryf 'n omvattende beskrywing van die onderskeie besluitnemingsomgewings waaraan die Chileense sowel as die Suid-Mrikaanse appelprodusent blootgestel ts. Verskille binne hierdie besluitnemingsomgewings word uitgelig en daar word aangetoon wat die direkte invloed van hierdie verskille op die mededingendheid van die Suid-Mrikaanse bedryf mag wees. Moontlike toekomstige veranderinge betreffende die onderskeie makro-omgewings van die twee bedrywe word ondersoek en daar word aangedui hoe hierdie veranderinge die bereiking en handhawing van nasionale mededingende voordeel in die toekoms sal belnvloed.

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