Genesis 12-25 in die lig van grafgebruike en grafvertellinge gedurende die Ystertydperk in Palestina

Oosthuizen, Rudolph De W. (2000-12)

Thesis (DTh)--Stellenbosch University, 2000

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Apart from the literature of Ancient Israel itself, and contemporary literature from the ancient Near East, archaeological data continue to be an important source for the historian seeking to elucidate a history of ancient Israel or certain aspects of that history. Notwithstanding certain developments in the field of Biblical scholarship as well as archaeology, the discipline of Biblical archaeology continues to survive as the framework in which these two disciplines join forces, and, quite possibly, may enter into the historical discourse in meaningful dialogue with each other. The historical discourse of course, is multidimensional, that is to say, the insights deriving from a diversity of methodological approaches are being integrated and related to each other in order to gain an improved understanding of the Old Testament (or certain aspects thereof), and the cultural-historical context from which the Old Testament came to be. Of decisive importance for Biblical archaeology is the foundation on which this dialogue takes place, after all, the basis on which the dialogue takes place has a determining influence on the collection and interpretation of archaeological data; and the use of them, similarly, on the understanding and interpretation of the Bible. The title of this dissertation suffices to indicate that the focus is on burial stories and burial customs in Palestine during the Iron Age. The dissertation then proceeds to show how a certain aspect of Old Testament views of death and dying, that is the coherence between posterity (the living) and the ancestors (those who have died) - which, among other things surface in the genealogical presentation of burial stories - can be understood from the burial customs in Syro-Palestine. In that respect the archaeological data contributes to an understanding of the death notices (presenting themselves as genealogical material in family burial stories) within the culturalhistorical milieu in which they appear. The coherence between religious documents and their cultural embeddedness contributes to a bettter understanding of the theological significance of the relevant texts. In addition to the fact that archaeology expands the database of historical discourse, important aspects of the Old Testament world of experience and historical context come to the fore that have so far been ignored in this discipline. An important aspect of burial customs, in terms of both the archaeological record (family graves) and the literary legacy of Ancient Israel (death notices and genealogies in the Old Testament) is the continuing relationship between the preceeding generations (the ancestors that have passed on) and the posterity (the community of those still living). The connection established in family burial stories between genealogical material (death notices) and the family burial customs highlights an important perspective, that is, the relation between the preceeding generations and the community still living as an element of the expectation of the future, or the future-directedness of Ancient Israel. The expectation of the future, with specific reference to the grave, is defined in terms of continuity in the generational community of familial relations.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Naas die literatuur van Ou Israel self, sowel as kontemporere literatuur uit die ou Nabye Ooste, bly argeologiese data In belangrike bron tot beskikking van die historikus wat In geskiedenis van Ou Israel of sekere aspekte daarvan wil verduidelik. Nieteenstaande sekere verwikkelinge op die gebied van die Bybelwetenskap aan die een kant, en van die Argeologie aan die ander kant, bly die dissipline Bybelse argeologie voortleef as die kader waar die twee dissiplines by mekaar aansluit, en bes moontlik tot In sinvolle dialoog met mekaar kan toetree in In historiese diskoers. Die historiese diskoers is uit die aard van die saak multidimensioneel van aard, dit wil se die insigte vanuit In verskeidenheid metodologiese benaderings word geintegreer en in verband tot mekaar gestel ten einde In beter begrip van die Ou Testament (of sekere aspekte daarvan) en die kultuur-historiese milieu - van waaruit die Ou Testament ontstaan het - te verkry. Van deurslaggewende belang vir die Bybelse argeologie is die basis waarop hierdie dialoog plaasvind. Die basis waarop die dialoog plaasvind, het immers In bepalende invloed op die versameling en interpretasie van argeologiese data; en die gebruik daarvan vir die verstaan en interpretasie van die Bybel. Die titel van die proefskrif dui reeds aan dat daar gefokus word op grafvertellinge en grafgebruike gedurende die Ystertyd in Palestina. Vervolgens word aangedui hoe In bepaalde aspek van die Ou-Testamentiese sieninge oor die dood, naamlik die samehang tussen die nageslag (lewendes) en die voorgeslag (ontslapenes) - wat onder meer ter sprake kom in die genealogiese aanbieding van die grafvertellinge - vanuit grafgebruike in Siro-Palestina verstaan kan word. In die opsig dra argeologiese gegewens daartoe by om die doodsberigte (wat by wyse van genealogiese materiaal in die familiegrafvertellinge na vore tree) te verstaan binne die kultuurhistoriese milieu waarin dit voorkom. Die samehang tussen religieuse dokumente en die kulturele bedding daarvan dra daartoe by dat ons die teologiese betekenis van die tekste wat ter sprake kom, beter kan verstaan. Afgesien van die feit dat die argeologie die databasis van die historiese diskoers verbreed, tree belangrike aspekte van die Ou-Testamentiese leefwereld of historiese milieu na vore wat grootliks geignoreer is in die vakgebied. 'n Belangrike aspek in doodsgebruike, beide wat betref die argeologiese rekord (familiegrafte) sowel as die literere nalatenskap van Ou Israel (doodsberigte en geslagsregisters in die Ou Testament), is die verbondenheid wat bly voortbestaan het tussen die voorgeslagte (ontslape voorvaders) en die nageslagte (nog lewende gemeenskap). Die verband wat gele word in die familiegrafvertellinge tussen genealogiese materiaal (doodsberigte) en die familiegraf bring 'n belangrike perspektief na vore, naamlik die verbondenheid tussen die voorgeslagte en die nog lewende gemeenskap as 'n element van die toekomsverwagting of toekomsgerigtheid van Ou Israel. Die toekomsverwagting word, met spesifieke verwysing na die graf, gedefinieer in terme van kontinurteit in familiale verband.

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