Die voorstelling van Jahwe as kryger in 'n seleksie Bybels-Hebreeuse psalms

Basson, Alec (2000-03)

Thesis (MA.)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates the image of Yahweh as warrior in a selection of Biblical-Hebrew psalms against the background of similar images in the broader Ancient Near East. In the psalms this image is closely linked with the emotions and experience of the psalmist. In the situation of conflict he calls on Yahweh to intervene and to destroy the enemy. It is in such circumstances that this image of Yahweh gives the necessary comfort. In order to investigate the image of Yahweh as warrior in the psalms, this study uses the Comparative Method. This method is based on the assumption that cultures and societies share certain ideas and characteristics. The specific approach within the Comparative Method is called the typological comparative approach. This approach focuses on the comparison of phenomena in cultures that are historically and geographically far removed from each other. This comparison is based on the assumption that certain cultural characteristics are universally shared. In this investigation the following psalms are analysed: 3, 21, 46, 68, 76, 83, 140, 144. The selection was made on the basis of the different literary genres within the psalms. As a background to this investigation a summary of warrior terminology and ideas in the rest of the Ancient Near East is presented. Afterwards the warrior image in the selected psalms is investigated. The investigation proceeded as follows: Chapter 1 is devoted to the research history with regard to the image of Yahweh as warrior in the Hebrew Bible; in Chapter 2 the metaphor as literary device is discussed; and in Chapter 3 the focus is on the institution of war in the Ancient Near East and the role of warriors in this regard. From Chapters 4 to 11 the warrior metaphors in the selected psalms are analysed. With each of the analysed psalms the following method is used: (1) a translation and text-critical notes; (2) a discussion of the literary genre; (3) an analysis of the poetic elements; and (4) an analysis of the warrior images. The psalmist's enemies are also Yahweh's enemies. In the psalms where he is portrayed as warrior, three characters always come to the fore, namely Yahweh, the psalmist and the enemy. While the enemy is portrayed in terms of typical hostile images, the relationship between Yahweh and the psalmist is defensive, and offensive between Yahweh and the enemy. In this study it is , also shown that when Yahweh intervenes, he saves and restores the honour of the psalmist. Yahweh is also praised for his acts of salvation in the past. This forms the basis for the psalmist call to Yahweh to intervene in his situation. He defeats the enemy by making use of different weapons. The psalmist's enemies are also Yahweh's enemies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die voorstelling van Jahwe as kryger in 'n seleksie Bybels-Hebreeuse psalms teen die agtergrond van soortgelyke voorstellings in die breër Ou Nabye Oosterse konteks. In die psalms hang hierdie voorstelling ten nouste saam met die emosies en ervarings van die digter. Die vyand stig gedurig stryd aan en soek die digter se ondergang. In sy situasie van stryd en aanvegting roep hy tot Jahwe om in te gryp en die vyand te verslaan. Dit is dan juis hierdie voorstelling van Jahwe wat in dié omstandighede 'n groot gerusstelling is. In hierdie studie word daar van die Vergelykende Metode gebruik gemaak. Hierdie metode is gebaseer op die aanname dat kulture en gemeenskappe sekere opvattings en idees met mekaar deel. Die spesifieke benadering wat binne die Vergelykende Metode gebruik word, word die Tipologies-Vergelykende benadering genoem. In hierdie benadering handel dit oor die vergelyking van verskynsels in kulture wat histories en geografies van mekaar verwyderd is. Hierdie benadering opereer met die aanname dat sekere kulturele opvattings universeel gedeel word. Die volgende psalms word in die ondersoek ontleed: 3, 21,46,68, 76, 83, 140, 144. Die seleksie is gedoen op grond van die belangrikste literêre genres in die psalms. As agtergrond tot die ondersoek, word 'n kort oorsig gebied van krygerterminologie en opvattings in die res van die Ou Nabye Ooste. Daarna is die krygerbeeld in die geselekteerde psalms ondersoek. Die ondersoek het soos volg verloop: in Hoofstuk 1 is daar aandag gegee aan die navorsingsgeskiedenis met betrekking tot die voorstelling van Jahwe as kryger in die Hebreeuse Bybel, in Hoofstuk 2 is die literêre verskynsel van die metafoor behandel en in Hoofstuk 3 is daar gefokus op die Ou Nabye Oosterse instelling van oorlog en die plek van krygers in die verband. Vanaf Hoofstuk 4-11 is die krygermetafore in die geselekteerde psalms geanaliseer. By elk van die geanaliseerde psalms word die volgende metode gevolg: (1) 'n vertaling en tekskritiese aantekeninge; (2) 'n bespreking van die literêre genre; (3) 'n analise van die styl-elemente; en (4) 'n analise van die krygermetafore. In die psalms waar Jahwe as kryger voorgestel word, tree daar altyd drie hoofkarakters na vore, naamlik die digter, die vyand en Jahwe. Die vyand word geteken in terme van tipiese "vyandsbeelde", terwyl Jahwe defensief teenoor die bidder optree en offensief teenoor die teëstanders. In hierdie studie word ook aangedui dat wanneer Jahwe ingryp, bewerk Hy redding en herstel Hy ook die digter se eer. Jahwe word geloof vir sy reddingsdade in die verlede. Dit vorm die basis vir die digter se hulpgeroep tot Jahwe om in te gryp in sy situasie. Hy verslaan die vyand deur van verskillende wapens gebruik te maak. Die digter se vyande word ook as Jahwe se vyand gesien.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/51727
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