Die neerslag van Art Deco in Suid-Afrika as manifestasie van 'n internasionale tydgees en styl, met spesifieke verwysing na die argitektuur

Van der Linde, Willemina ; Dorfling, Willemina (2000-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The term Art Deco is derived from the renowned 1925 exhibition that took place in Paris, France namely L'Exposition des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes and only came about in 1966. It refers to the style that developed during the 1920's and reached a climax in the 1930's. Art Deco was a modernistic style and part of the Modern Movement. Many transformations, mixtures and ramifications of the style exist. The appearance of the style ranged from the avant garde to the classic. It was a complete and total style that manifested in diverse areas of the material and spiritual culture, for example furniture design, clothing, motor design and especially in architecture. The era between the two World Wars was characterised by a vast technological progress which was put to use in creating Art Deco products. The era was distinguished by new materials and building methods that reflected the modernistic time spirit. The roaring twenties was the age of the emancipated woman, known as the flapper and the age of cocktail parties, jazz and Charleston. It was an exciting era where man attempts to escape the sorrows of the previous world war. Art Deco was the prevailing style in architecture during the 1920's and 1930's. It was the style that was applied in architecture in Europa, Asia, Britain, America, New Zealand, Australia, Africa and particularly in South Africa. The most outstanding feature identifying Art Deco buildings was the emphasised verticality in facades. Further features of Art Deco buildings are the features of horizontality and curved lines and rounded corners which created a streamlined appearance. Ship style elements such as porthole windows and ship rails that showed an influence of expressionism were commonly used in Art Deco architecture. The ziggurat shape or stepped back building masses was used frequently. Geometrical shapes, parapets, flat roofs and the zigzag chevron motive were incorporated in designs. The Art Deco-style manifested in all areas of the South African architecture during the applicable Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za/ years. It embraced public, commercial, residential, entertainment, sport and recreational, ecclesiastical, industrial buildings and monuments. Although South African buildings often were of smaller format, they were fully fledged Art Deco buildings within the context of an international style. South African Art Deco buildings often had their own character due to local building materials such as South African marble and sandstone. South African architecture made its mark on the style of the ornamentation by the usage of local fauna and flora as decorative motifs. A definite manifestation of the Art Deco style occurred in South African architecture as an international style. South African Deco occupies a special place within the international Art Deco style, because of the contribution of the predominant local character.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die term Art Deco is afgelei van die wereldbekende 1925-uitstalling wat in Parys, Frankryk plaasgevind het, naamlik L'Exposition des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, en het eers in 1966 in gebruik gekom. Dit verwys na die styl wat gedurende die 1920's ontwikkel het en 'n hoogtepunt in die 1930's bereik het. Art Deco is 'n modemistiese styl en vorm deel van die Modeme Beweging. Daar bestaan vele vervormings, vermengings en vertakkings van die styl. Die gedaantes wat die styl aangeneem het, het van die avant-garde na die klassieke gewissel. Dit was 'n volkome of totale styl wat op diverse terreine van die stoflike en geestelike kultuur tot uiting gekom het, byvoorbeeld in meubelontwerp, kleredrag, motorontwerp en veral ook in die argitektuur. Die tydperk tussen die twee wereldoorloe was tekenend van snelle vooruitgang op tegnologiese gebied, wat aangewend is om Art Deco-produkte te vervaardig. Die era is gekenmerk deur nuwe materiale en boumetodes wat die modemistiese gees van die tyd weerspieel het. Die roaring twenties was die era van die geemansipeerde vrou, bekend as die flapper en die era van skemerpartytjies, jazz en Charleston. Dit was 'n opwindende era waarin die mens van die ellendes van die voorafgaande Wereldoorlog probeer wegkom het. Gedurende die 1920's en 1930's is die Art Deco-styl in argitektuur in Europa, Asie, Brittanje, Amerika, Nieu-Seeland, Australia, Afrika en in die besonder in Suid-Afrika aangewend. Die belangrikste kenmerk waaraan Art Deco-geboue geidentifiseer kan word, is die van beklemtoonde vertikaliteit in fasades. Verskeie kenmerke waaraan Art Decogeboue gekenmerk word is die elemente van horisontaliteit, geronde hoeke en lyne wat 'n vaartbelynde voorkoms skep. Skeepsstyl-elemente soos die van patryspoortvensters en skeepsrelings wat 'n invloed van ekspressionisme toon, was algemeen in Art Decoargitektuur. Die ziggoeratvorm of trapvormige terugplasing van boumassas is vrylik gebruik. Geometriese vorms, borswerings, platdakke en die sigsag chevronmotief is in die meeste Art Deco-ontwerpe geinkorporeer. Die Art Deco-styl het op alle terreine van die Suid-Afrikaanse argitektuur gedurende die toepaslike jare 'n neerslag gevind. Dit sluit openbare, kommersiele, residensiele, vermaaklikheids-, sport en ontspanning, kerklike, industriele geboue en monumente in. Alhoewel Suid-Afrikaanse geboue dikwels 'n kleiner formaat as oorsese geboue aangeneem het, was dit volwaardige Art Deco-geboue binne die konteks van 'n internasionale styl. Plaaslik het die styl wel 'n eie karakter aangeneem, veral weens die gebruik van plaaslike boumateriale soos marmer en sandsteen. Ook wat die omamentele aspek betref, het Suid-Afrikaanse argitektuur sy eie stempel op die styl afgedruk aangesien Suid-Afrikaanse flora en fauna as versieringsmotiewe gebruik is. Daar het 'n definitiewe neerslag van die Art Deco-styl in Suid-Afrikaanse argitektuur plaasgevind, wat dit onbetwisbaar 'n manifestasie van 'n internasionale styl maak. Suid- Vfrikaanse Deco neem 'n besondere plek binne die internasionale Art Deco-styl in, waartoe die besondere plaaslike karakter baie bydra.

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