Die bepaling van die stressore en behartigingstrategiee van die arbeidsterapie studente aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch

Kemp, Rene (2000)

Thesis (MOccTher) -- Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The main aim of this study was to investigate the stressors experienced by occupational therapy students at the University of Stellenbosch and the coping strategies used by these students to manage their stress. The possible relationship existing between the coping strategies and certain mediators of stress, namely self esteem, Type A personality, optimism and locus of control, was also investigated. The sample consisted of 151 occupational therapy students at the University of Stellenbosch. A package of questionnaires was completed by each student. This package included a stressor questionnaire, "Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg" (SES), "Jenkins Activity Survey - Student version", (SJAS), "Revised Life Orientation Test" (LOT-R), "Internal-External Locus of Control Scale" (I-E), "Cope Scales" and a Biographical questionnaire. The results indicated that students intensely experience the stressors "limited free time" and "fear of failure". The most important academic stressors were "theoretical and practical examinations and tests" and "academic work load". The most important clinical stressor in especially the third and fourth years of study was the "volume of written requirements". The students' self esteem was distressingly low (an average of 7.28 for a possible score of 10, which indicates a low self esteem). The students' self esteem did however, show an increase from the first to the fourth year of study. The B.Occupational Therapy IV students showed a significantly higher Type A personality than did the B.Occupational Therapy I students. The students' "optimism" and "locus of control" did not differ in the four different years of study. The functional coping strategies used most commonly by students are "religion", "positive re-interpretation and growth", "active coping" and "planning". The maladaptive coping strategies, "seeks social support for emotional purposes", "focus on and ventilate feelings" and "mental disengagement" are also often used by students. "Denial" and "alcohol and substance abuse" are not commonly used by students. A negative relationship between avoidance behaviour and self esteem and Type A personality exists in the B.Occupational Therapy I students. There is also a negative relationship between "seeks social support for instrumental purposes" and "optimism". In the B.Occupational Therapy II students, a positive relationship exists between self esteem and "positive re-interpretation and growth", "active coping", "planning", "religion" and "restraint coping". A similar tendency was noted in the B.Occupational Therapy III and B.Occupational Therapy IV students. In conclusion, some recommendations are made to enable students to effectively cope with their stressors.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die hoofdoelstelling van hierdie studie was om ondersoek in te stel na die stressore wat deur die arbeidsterapie studente aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch ervaar word en watter behartigingstrategieë die genoemde studente gebruik om hulle stres te behartig. Verder is ondersoek ingestel na die moontlike verband tussen die behartigingstrategieë en sekere mediatore van stres naamlik selfagting, Tipe A persoonlikheid, optimisme en lokus van kontrole, bestaan. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 151 arbeidsterapie studente aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. 'n Pakket van vraelyste bestaande uit 'n stressore vraelys, "Self-Esteem Scale van Rosenberg" (SES), "Jenkins Activity Survey - Student version", (SJAS), "Revised Life Orientation Tesf' (LOT-R), "Internal-External Locus of Control Scale" (I-E), "Cope Scales" en 'n Biografiese vraelys is deur elke student voltooi. Die resultate het getoon dat die studente die persoonlike stressore van "gebrek aan vrye tyd" en "vrees vir mislukking" baie intensief ervaar het. Die belangrikste akademiese stressore was die "teoretiese en praktiese eksamens en toetse" en die "akademiese werklading". Die belangrikste kliniese stressor in veral die derde en vierde studiejaar was die "volume skriftelike vereistes". Die selfagting van die studente is kommerwekkend laag ('n gemiddelde van 7.28 uit 'n moontlike telling van 10 wat dui op 'n lae selfagting). Die studente se selfagting het egter toegeneem vanaf B.Arbeidsterapie I tot B.Arbeidsterapie IV. Die B.Arbeidsterapie IV studente het In betekenisvolle hoër Tipe A persoonlikheid as B.Arbeidsterapie I. Die studente se optimisme en lokus van kontrole het nie verskiloor die vier verskillende studiejare nie. Die funksionele behartigingstrategieë wat die studente die meeste gebruik is "godsdiens", "positiewe herinterpretasie en groei", "aktiewe behartiging" en "beplanning". Die disfunksionele behartigingstrategieë van "soek sosiale ondersteuning vir emosionele redes", "fokus op en ventileer gevoelens" en "geestelike onttrekking" word ook dikwels deur die studente gebruik. "Ontkenning" en "alkohol en middelmisbruik" word nie gereeld deur die studente gebruik nie. By B.Arbeidsterapie studente bestaan daar 'n negatiewe verwantskap tussen "gedragsonttrekking" en "selfagting" en "Tipe A persoonlikheid". Daar bestaan ook 'n negatiewe verwantskap tussen "soek sosiale ondersteuning vir instrumentele redes" en "optimisme". By die B.Arbeidsterapie II studente bestaan daar 'n positiewe verwantskap tussen "selfagting" en "positiewe herinterpretasie en groei", "aktiewe behartiging", "beplanning", "godsdiens" en "weerhou behartiging". Dieselfde tendens word gesien by B.Arbeidsterapie III en B.Arbeidsterapie IV. Ten slotte word aanbevelings gemaak om die studente toe te rus om hulle stressore effektief te behartig.

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