Biology, ecology and management of white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on citrus and syzygium

Wakgari, Waktola (Waktola Muleta) (2000-12)

Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The population density of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, has increased since 1994 in certain areas of Western and parts of Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa where citrus is grown, particularly on Citrus reticulata (Blanco). A study was conducted to investigate its morphology, biology and ecology as contributions to the development of a sound integrated management programme. Characteristics of the immature stages and adult females were described and illustrated from field-collected and slide-mounted specimens. A key to the different stages and morphometeric characteristics useful for separating them are provided. No significant differences in female fecundity were found between orchards (P > 0.05). However, fecundity varied significantly between female size classes from the same orchard (P < 0.001). Female body-size also differed significantly between orchards (P < 0.05) and was significantly positively correlated with fecundity (P < 0.01). C. destructor has one discrete generation per year in South Africa. Oviposition commenced in November and continued through to the end of December with a few females ovipositing until mid January. Population density of the second instar peaked in February while the third instar extended from March to the end of July, followed by a peak population of adults in August. Seven primary and three secondary parasitoids, as well as four predator species attacking C. destructor were identified. Aprostocetus (= Tetrastichus) ceroplastae (Girault) was the dominant species, accounting for 78.87% of the total primary parasitoids reared. Peak numbers of parasitoids and predators were synchronized with peak emergence of susceptible scale stages, indicating that the host-parasitoid/predator system contained a density-dependent regulatory mechanism. Key mortality factors varied slightly between two of the orchards. Key stage mortality determined from a cohort life table was generally in the third instar (LIlI) and preovipositional female (POF) stage. Significant density-dependent mortality factors were demonstrated for the first instar (LI) and PDF stage. Dispersal of C. destructor is by first instar nymphs and the numbers caught on a series of yellow sticky traps varied significantly between crawler densities at the source, trap distances and trap directions from the source (P < 0.001). The numbers caught were positively correlated to the initial crawler density at the source (P < 0.01), suggesting that dispersal was density dependent. Trap distance and the numbers caught were inversely correlated (P < 0.01). Evaluation of effects of different densities of C. destructor on growth, survivorship and reproduction of scales as well as on leaf bearing ability of trees and area of leaf surface covered with sooty mould fungus was carried out on naturally infested Syzygium (= Eugenia) malaccensis (L.) plants. Scale body size and fecundity were inversely related to scale density (P < 0.01), suggesting density-dependent intraspecific competition. Scale survivorship generally declined with increasing density whereas scale parasitism and predation were positively correlated with density (P < 0.05). At high scale densities production of new leaves was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), reducing the resource base for subsequent generations of scale. Scale density and leaf area covered with sooty mould fungus were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). The toxicity of four synthetic insecticides against the three immature stages of C. destructor and of eight insecticides against the parasitoid A. ceroplastae was evaluated. Development of the first and second instars of C. destructor was completely arrested by the chemicals. Female fecundity, fertility and body sizes of survivors of treatments applied at the LIII stage were not significantly affected by any of the chemicals (P > 0.05). All the chemicals exhibited high toxicity to A. ceroplastae and hence are not recommended for integrated management of C. destructor in citrus orchards where A. ceroplastae plays an important role.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die populasiedigtheid van die witwasdopluis, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, het sedert 1994 toegeneem in sekere gebiede van die Weskaap en Ooskaap provinsies van Suid-Afrika waar sitrus verbou word, veralop Citrus reticulata (Blanco). 'n Studie van hierdie insek se morfologie, biologie en ekologie is onderneem as bydrae tot die ontwikkeling van 'n geïntegreerde bestuursprogram. Die karaktertrekke van die onvolwasse stadia en die volwasse wyfies is beskryf en geïllustreer vanaf eksemplare wat in die veld versamel is en op g1asplaatjies gemonteer is. 'n Sleutel vir die verskillende stadia en morfometriese kenmerke wat nuttig is om hulle te onderskei, word voorsien. Geen beduidende verskille in die vrugbaarheid van wyfies van verskillende boorde is gevind nie (P < 0.05). Vrugbaarheid het egter betekenisvol verskil by die verskillende grootteklasse van wyfies uit dieselfde boord (P < 0.001). Die liggaamsgrootte van wyfies uit verskillende boorde het betekenisvol verskil (P < 0.05) en was betekenisvol positief gekorreleer met vrugbaarheid (P < 0.01). C. destructor het een generasie per jaar in Suid-Afrika. Eierlegging het in November begin en aangehou tot aan die einde van Desember, met enkele wyfies wat nog tot in middel Januarie eiers gelê het. Die populasiedigtheid van die tweede instar het 'n hoogtepunt in Februarie bereik, terwyl die derde instar van Maart tot aan die einde van Julie geduur het, gevolg deur 'n piekbevolking van volwassenes in Augustus. Sewe primêre en drie sekondêre parasitoïde asook vier predator spesies wat C destructor aanval, is geïdentifiseer. Aprostocetus (=Tetrastichus) ceroplastae (Girault) was die dominante spesies wat 78.87% van die totale aantal primêre parasitoïde wat uitgeteel is, uitgemaak het. Die pieke in die getalle van parasitoïde en predatore was gesinchroniseer met pieke in die verskyning van die gevoelige stadia, wat dui op die aanwesigheid van 'n digtheidsafhanklike regulatoriese meganisme. Die sleutel mortaliteitsfaktore het effens gevarieer tussen twee van die boorde. Die sleutelstadium van mortaliteit, soos bepaal m.b.v. 'n kohort lewenstabel, was gewoonlik die derde instar (LIlI) en die preoviposisionele wyfie (POW). Betekenisvolle digtheidsafhanklike mortaliteitsfaktore IS aangetoon vir die eerste instar (LI) en die POW. Die verspreiding van C.destructor vind plaas deur die eerste instar nimfe en die getalle wat op 'n reeks van taai geel valle gevang is, het betekenisvol gewissel volgens kruiperdigthede by die bron, asook die afstand en rigting van die valle vanaf die bron (P < 0.001). Die getalle wat gevang is, was positief gekorreleer met die aanvanklike kruiperdigtheid by die bron (P < 0.01), wat daarop dui dat verspreiding digtheidsafhanklik was. Die afstand van die valle en die aantal wat gevang is, was omgekeerd gekorreleer (P < 0.01). 'n Evaluering van die invloed van verskillende digthede van C. destructor op die groei, oorlewing en reproduksie van dopluise, asook die vermoë van bome om blare te dra en die area van die blaaroppervlak wat met roetskimmel besmet is, is uitgevoer op plante van Syzygium (= Eugenia) malaccensis (L.) met 'n natuurlike besmetting. Die liggaamsgrootte en vrugbaarheid van die dopluise was omgekeerd gekorreleer met hulle digtheid (P < 0.01), wat dui op digtheidsafhanklike intraspesifieke kompetisie. Die oorlewing van die dopluise het oor die algemeen afgeneem met toenemende digtheid, terwyl parasitisme en predasie positief gekorreleer was met digtheid (P < 0.05). By hoë dopluisdigthede het die produksie van nuwe blare betekenisvol afgeneem (P < 0.01), wat die hulpbronbasis vir daaropvolgende generasies van dopluise verswak. Die dopluisdigtheid en blaaroppervlak wat met roetskimmel bedek was, was positief gekorreleer (P < 0.05). Die toksisiteit van vier sintetiese insektemiddels teenoor die drie onvolwasse stadia van C. destructor en van agt insektemiddels teenoor die parasitoïd A. ceroplastae is geëvalueer. Die ontwikkeling van die eerste en tweede instars van C. destructor is heeltemal stopgesit deur die middels. Die fekunditeit, fertiliteit en liggaamsgrootte van wyfies wat toedienings op die LIIl stadium oorleef het, is nie betekenisvol ge-affekteer deur enige van die middels nie (P < 0.05). Al die middels was baie toksies teenoor A. ceroplastae en word dus nie aanbeveel vir die geïntegreerde bestuur van C. destructor waar A. ceroplastae 'n belangrike rol speel nie.

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