Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) in improving the global competitiveness of the fish industry with special reference to the Nile Perch (Tanzania)

Mlolwa, Mwanaidi Ramadhani (2000-03)

Thesis (MPhilAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Not only have non-trade barriers been applied in Europe and the US to agricultural products from developing countries, but protective policy is also likely to continue. Owing to the omission of fish from the discussions in the final round of agreement at Uruguay, where tariffs were significantly reduced for other agricultural products, the fish industry has not had any non tarriff barier relief in recent years. The failure of the November 1999 World Trade Organisation Meeting at Seattle to reach any agreement, has again shattered hopes of international relief for fishery products. The main assumption underlying the study was that the production of fish in Tanzania could improve significantly if the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) principles were applied rigorously. It was believed that neither the prerequisite programmes, nor HACCP principles were probably applied as stringently as international standards require. The aim of the study was to review the literature on HACCP, programmes that are prerequisite for HACCP and factors that_ determine competitiveness in business and to examine the Tanzanian Nile perch industry against this background. The overall goal was to determine how the industry could become more internationally competitive. This was achieved by comparing the socio-economic reality of Tanzania with factors that are considered in the literature to affect competitiveness in general and in the fish industry specifically. To achieve the first of these aims, Tanzania's socioeconomic position as a developing country was examined. To achieve the latter, the commitment of fish processing factories to the application of HACCP principles and their compliance with prerequisite programmes were evaluated in a field study. The literature study confirms that HACCP has received international recognition in the fish industry as a factor to prevent hazards and gain competitiveness in the global fish market. However, conditions in Tanzania were shown to be insufficient to support the fisheries sector in attempting to gain such a competitive advantage. Although, Tanzania has the comparative advantage of a fishery resource base, a favourable trade policy and foreign technology and management, the macro-factors that include the infrastructure, human resource capital, foreign policy environment and the supporting industries are not supportive. For the time being, therefore, improvement can only come from the government and from the industry itself. There are several factors to which the government needs to pay attention in order to support this industry - and others - in achieving international success. These include the provision of infrastructure and facilities, the improvement of the transportation network, technological capabilities, human resource capital and the provision of safe water and electric power. However, the fish industry cannot rely on the government alone. The improvement of their product is also dependent on their own efforts. According to the findings of this study, the industry needs to comply with the basic sanitation factors and provide the necessary training to the employees and fish suppliers. Having examined the situation more closely, the assumption is proved to be correct. The fish industry in Tanzania does indeed appear to have the potential to become internationally competitive. Such success, however, will be heavily dependent on cooperation between the government and the industry

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Handelsbeperkinge op landbouproduckte vanaf ontwinkkelende in Europa en die Verenigde State toegepas. Daarbenewens sal beskermende beleidsriglyne waarskynlik in stand gehou word. Bespreking van sake met betrekking to vissery is nie by die finale rondte van ooreenstemming te Uruquay, waar tariewe vir ander landbouproduckte betekenisvol verlaag is, ingesluit nie, en daardeur is daar gedurende die laaste aantal jare geen belastingverligting vir die visindustrie gebied nie. By die World Trase Organisation se vergadering om internasionale verligting vir visproducte te verkry, weereens beskaam. Die hoofveronderstelling wat hierdie studie ondersteun, is dat visproduksie III Tanzanie betekenisvol verbeter kan word indien die can HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) streng toegepas word. Dit is veronderstel dat nóg die voorvereiste programme, nóg die HACCP-beginsels wat ten opsigte van internasionale standaarde vereis word, streng volgens voorskriftoegepas word. Die doel van die studie was om 'n oorsig van die literatuur oor HACCP, programme wat as HACCP-voorvereistes geld en faktore wat mededingendheid in die besigheidswereld bepaal, te verkry en om die Tanzaniese Nyl-baarsbedryf teen hierdie agterground te ondersoek. Die oorkoepelende doel was om vas te stel hoe die bedryf internasionaal meer mededingend kan word. Dit is gedoen deur middel van vergelyking tussen die sosio-ekonomiese werklikheid van Tanzanië en die faktore wat mededingendheid in die algemeen, volgens die literatuur, en die visbedryf in besonder, affekteer. Om die eeste van hiedie doelstellings te bereik, is die sosio-ekonomies posisie van Tanzanie as 'n ontwikkelende land ondersoek Om die tweede te bereik, is 'n veldstudie uitgevoer om die mate waartoe fabrieke wat vis verwerk daarop ingestel is om HACCP-beginsels toe te pas en hul gewilligheid om die programme wat as voorvereistes dien, na te kom, te evalueer. Die literatuurstudie het bevestig dat HACCP internasionale erkenning geniet as 'n faktor om risikO in de visbedryf uit te skakel en mededingendheid op die wereldmark vir vis te verwerf. Daar is egter bewys dat toetstande in Tanzanie ontoereikend is om die visserysektor in die verwewing van'n mededingende voorsprong te ondersteun. Alhoewel Tanzanië oor die relatiewe voordele van vissery as 'n hulpbron, gunstige handelsbeleid en buitelandse tegnologie en bestuur bestik, bied die makrofaktore soos infrastruktuur, kapitaal III die vorm van menslike hulpbronne, die buitelandse beleidsomgewing en die ondersteunende bedrywe nie genoeg ondersteuning nie. Vir die hede, kan ontwikkeling dus slegs deur die regering en die bedryf self bewekstelling word. Daar is verskeie faktore waaraan die regering aandag moet skenk om hierdie bedryf-en ander bedrywe-in die verkryging van internasionale sukses te ondersteun. Sulke faktore omvat die daarstelling van infrastruktuur en fasiliteite, die verbetering van die vervoernetwerk, tegnologiese vermoens en menslike hulpbronkapitaal, en voorsiening van onbesmette water en elektriese krag. Die visbedryf kan egter nie net op die regering steun nie. Die verbetering van die product is van die bedryf self afhanklik. Die bevindings van hierdie studie dui daarop dat die bedryf die basiese faktore betreffende sanitêre beginsels moet onderhoue en die vereiste opleiding aan diensnemers moet verskaf. By die nadere ondersoek van die situasie is die oorspronklike veronderstelling korrek bewys. Die visbedryf in Tanzanië beskik oor die potensiaal om internasionaal medengend te word. Sodanige sukses sal egter uiters afhanklik wees van samewerking tussen die regering en die bedryf.

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