An investigation into the qualities of new and field aged cycloaliphatic epoxide insulation in the Republic of South Africa

Van der Merwe, Neil (2000-12)

Thesis (M.Ing.)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The application of cycloaliphatic epoxide (CE) insulation in the Republic of South Africa is investigated within this thesis. There was a request from industry to evaluate the product and indicate its suitability for application within the various geographic and climatic zones typical of the RSA. An extensive survey was conducted into the historic origins of the material, and the experiences of international utilities applying the insulation medium in respect of polluted conditions. The properties of the Automatic Pressure Gelation (APG) CE insulator manufacturing process are discussed with reference to the manufacture of glass and porcelain insulation, and typical areas for concern are discussed with reference to insulators found to deviate from specification. Typical insulators were obtained from the manufacturers and utilities associated with the product, and were subjected to electrical, material and visual examination tests. The electrical tests included AC wet and dry, lightning impulse, clean fog, salt fog, mould release resiliency and the IEC 1109 voltage test. The material tests included the identification of the epoxide systems in use in the RSA, ultraviolet radiation aging simulation, water hydrolysis and salt deposit density tests. The main findings are: • CE insulation is sensitive to marine pollution and continuous-wetting pollution types. • The use of CE insulation is promoted in respect of inland and medium industrial pollution types. • Class B pin-type CE insulation is prone to partial discharge related failures. • Surface roughening on the insulator surfaces leads to reduced AC wet flashover voltages and increased pollution catch. Additionally: • A comprehensive aging hypothesis was developed detailing three independent aging stages/modes applying to CE insulation. • A hypothesis was developed for a new evaluation method for documenting changes on insulator surfaces due to the action of aging mechanisms: The Surface Area Index.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die aanwending van sikloalifatiese epoksied (SE) isolasie in die Republiek Van Suid Afrika word in hierdie skripsie ondersoek. Hierdie ondersoek is geloods op versoek van die elektrisiteitsbedryf om die toepaslike aanwending van die produk onder die verskeie heersende streeksweersomstandighede binne die RSA te evalueer. Breedvoerige navorsing is gedoen om die geskiedkundige oorsprong van die materiaal vas te stel, sowel as om die prestasie daarvan as insulasiemiddel te boekstaaf. Daar is veral gelet op die prestasie van die materiaal onder besoedelende omstandighede en ondervinding wat opgedoen is deur intemasionale ondememings. Die eienskappe van die automatiese drukjelvormings-vervaardigingsproses (APG) word behandel met verwysing na die maak van glas en porselein insulators. Tipiese probleemareas word bespreek van insulators wat afwyk van spesifikasie af. Verteenwoordigende isolators is vanaf vervaardigers en ondememings verkry wat met die produk bemoei is. Hulle is blootgestel aan elektriese, materiaal en visuele toetse. Die elektriese toetse het die volgende behels: nat en droog wisselstroom, skoon waterdamp, sout waterdamp en die IEe 1109 spanningstoets. Die effek van die verlies van die anti-kleefmiddel (gebruik tydens die gietproses) as gevolg van veroudering is ook in detail behandel. Die materiaaltoetse het ingesluit: die uitkenning van die epoksied stelsels in gebruik in die RSA, gesimuleerde veroudering deur ultravioletligbestraling, water hidroliese en soutlaag digtheids toetse. Die hoofbevindings is: • SE isolasie word bemvloed deur seelug besoedeling sowel as volgehoue benatting. Die gebruik van SE isolasie word voorgestel vir binnelandse gebruik sowel as in gebiede met mediumvlak nywerheidsbesoedeling. • Klas B pen-tipe SE isolasie is geneig tot deelontladings wat dan tot faling lei. • Oppervlakvergroffing lei tot In verminderde wisselstroom orvonksspanning onder nat toestande sowel as verhoogde vangs van besoedeling. Bykomend hiertoe is: • 'n breedvoerige SE verouderingshipotese ontwikkel wat drie onafhanklike stadia en modusse van die verouderingsproses uitgewys het. • 'n hipotese ontwikkel vir In nuwe evaluasiemetode om die verandering in die isolatoroppervlak as gevolg van veroudering te dokumenteer: Oppervlakte- Area Indeks (SAl).

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