Analysis of the efficiency of the transport logistics supply chain with specific reference to liner shipping in South Africa

Qukula, Temba (2000-12)

Study project (MPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Liner shipping supplies a frequent scheduled transport service between designated ports to meet the needs of importers and exporters. Those needs are becoming more specific as a result of increasing competition attributable to globalisation of trade while importers and exporters are requiring more exacting services from the liner operators. The elements of service which most concern the importers and exporters are obviously the costs they must bear for the conveyance of the cargo and the time taken for its delivery. In order to meet the requirements of importers and exporters and at the same time enable the operators of the services to remain in business in the face of increasing competition within the industry, liner shipping worldwide is undergoing major changes. These changes are intended to increase the economies of scale and to extend control of the liner operators over the landside transport services. A discussion on liner shipping and current developments is contained in Chapter 3. Liner shipping plays an indispensable role in the economy of South Africa because almost 50% by value of South African imports are containerised. That equates to 8% of South African imports by volume (Moving South Africa: 1998), although it must be borne in mind that some of the cargo moving through South African ports is ultimately destined for countries in SADC (Southern African Development Community). According to Drewry Shipping Consultants, containerised cargo worldwide has been growing at the rate of about 8% per annum since 1980 and the South African trade has experienced a similarly high growth. The actual transport of containers, by sea is only one of the elements in the transport logistics supply chain (TLSC) between exporters in one country and importers in another with which liner operators must concern themselves. A conceptual background explaining the entire TLSC is provided in Chapter 2. In that chapter, the TLSe is defined and two models are used to identify key elements of the TLSC as well as interaction between them. Inefficiencies existing in individual elements of the TLSC as well as suggested solutions to the underlying problems are discussed in Chapter 4. Emphasis is placed on the need to use information technology as a vehicle to integrate the individual elements of the TLSe and as a means of saving costs and time. A discussion of the economic benefits of an efficient TLSe is contained in Chapter 5, while Chapter 6 includes a discussion on local and regional developments that have a bearing on the efficiency of the TLSe. The conclusions of the study together with recommended action are contained in Chapter 7.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Lynvaart bied 'n gereeld geskeduleerde vervoerdiens tussen bepaalde hawens om in die behoeftes van in- en uitvoerders te voorsien. Weens toenemende mededinging voortspruitend uit die globalisering van handel, raak hierdie behoeftes egter al hoe veeleisender, terwyl in- en uitvoerders ook al hoe meer eise begin stel aan die gehalte van die diens wat deur lynvaartoperateurs gelewer word. Die elemente van hierdie diens waarby in- en uitvoerders die grootste belang het, is uiteraard die koste en die tyd verbonde aan vragverskeping. Om aan die vereistes van in- en uitvoerders te voldoen en dit terselfdertyd vir operateurs moontlik te maak om hul besighede te midde van toenemende mededinging in die industrie te bly bedryf, is die lynvaartbedryf wereldwyd besig om groot veranderinge te ondergaan. Hierdie veranderinge is bedoel om skaalvoordele te verbeter en lynvaartoperateurs se beheer oor vervoerdienste aan land uit te brei. Lynvaart en huidige ontwikkelinge in die bedryf word in Hoofstuk 3 bepreek. Lynvaart speel 'n onontbeerlike rol in Suid-Afrika se ekonomie omdat ongeveer 50% van die waarde van Suid-Afrika se invoere in houers vervoer word. Dit is gelyk aan 8% van Suid-Afrika se invoere per volume (Moving South Africa: 1998), alhoewel daar ook in gedagte gehou moet word dat 'n gedeelte van die vrag wat deur Suid-Afrikaanse hawens beweeg, uiteindelik bestem is vir lande in die SAOG (Suider-Afrikaanse Onwikkelingsgemeenskap). Volgense Drewry Skeepskonsultante, groei die vervoer van houerverskeping sedert 1980 teen 'n tempo van ongeveer 8% per jaar, en het die Suid-Afrikaanse handel 'n soortgelyke hoe groeikoers ondervind. Die werklike verskeping van houers is net een van die elemente in die vervoerlogistiekvoorsieningsketting (VL VK) tussen uitvoerders in een land en invoerders in 'n ander land waarmee lynvaartoperateurs rekening moet hou. 'n Konseptuele raamwerk wat die VLVK in die geheel verduidelik, verskyn in Hoofstuk 2. Die VLVK word ook in hierdie hoofstuk gedefinieer en twee modelle word gebruik om elemente daarvan asook die interaksie tussen daardie elemente te identifiseer. Die ontoereikendheid van individuele elemente van die VLVK asook moontlike oplossings vir die onderliggende probleme word in Hoofstuk 4 bespreek. Klem word geplaas op die noodsaaklikheid om informasietegnologie te gebruik om die individuele elemente van die VLVK te integreer ten einde tyd en koste te bespaar. Die ekonomiese voordele van 'n doeltreffende VLVK word in Hoofstuk 5 bespreek, terwyl Hoofstuk 6 handel oor plaaslike en streeksonwikkelinge wat die VLVK se doeltreffendheid beinvloed. Die gevolgtrek

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