A histological and morphometric assessment of endocrine and ductular proliferation in the adult rat pancreas using an occlusive pancreatic duct ligation model

Page, Benedict J. (Benedict John) (2000-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is synonymous with "B-cell failure". Ligation of the pancreatic duct distally to its confluence into the bile duct has been shown to induce endocrine tissue regeneration from a number of probable sources. The cells responsible for regeneration are supposed to possess either dormant pluripotent stem cell ability and/or the plasticity to undergo metaplasia to form new and surplus endocrine tissue able to replace pathologically and/or experimentally compromised pancreas. The sequence of events (cell lineage) during this process of neogenesis, has been the source of controversy for quite some time as various studies suggest that the cell lineage differs from in vivo and in vitro studies, according to experimental model and species of laboratory animal. The object of this study was to utilise an established experimental laboratory animal model to study islet morphological changes, neogenesis and or both in vivo. Further aims of the study were to determine the extent, sequence and magnitude of pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) induced endocrine neogenesis/morphogenesis in a laboratory rat model using occlusive pancreatic duct ligation. PDL's were performed on six groups of 25 normal adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (300g+) according to the method of Hultquist and Jonsson (1965). Experimental animals were sacrificed at 12 hr intervals from day one post-PDL to day 10 and every 24 hrs thereafter to day 14 as described by Wang, Klëppel, Bouwens (1995). Animals received BrdU (a thymidine marker and cell proliferation indicator) 50mglkg intraperitoneally as described by Wang et al. (1995), one hour prior to removal of the pancreas after which it was fixed in Bouin's solution and histologically processed. Seven consecutive 3-6 urn thick serial sections were sequentially stained with H & E, insulin (I), glucagon (G), somatostatin (ST), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY). Immunolabeling was done according to the method of Guesdon, Temynck , Avrameas (1979). Double immunolabeling for BrdU and each pancreatic peptide was performed on the sections on days 3,5, 7, 9 and 11 as described by Wang et al (1994). Cellular transformation between one and 3Yz days was characterised by simultaneous total deletion and/or transdifferentiation of the acinar compartment and the appearance of immunoreactive cells for I (11.53 ±1.5%), G (1.85 ±0.8%), pp (1.50 ±0.09%), and ST (1.96 ±0.24%). Changes in the endocrine composition in existing islets, occurred along a pathway that saw PP- and ST-cells invading the islet core, islet mantle glucagon deletion and random appearance of all endocrine cell types within the inter-islet interstitium on day 3Yz. Days 4 to 6Yz saw further endocrine expansion while days 7 to 14 were distinguished by islet reconstitution and consolidation. NPY immunoreactivity appeared on day 4Y2 and persisted intermittently throughout while PVV first appeared on day 4 and disappeared after day 7Yz. The results suggest that PDL firstly induced the development of endocrine tissue distributed haphazardly throughout the space previously occupied by acinar parenchyma. Secondly, the appearance of insulin is preceded by the appearance of PP, glucagon and somatostatin by 24-hours. A still to be determined proportion of the ligation induced endocrine formation appeared to be associated with existing islets, resulting in a number of very large islets, some of which might have secretory access through the glomerularlike capillary network known to occupy the islet core. The remainder appeared to form separate "new" islets, which have a dubious access to the blood stream. In conclusion, if it is true that the pancreas can regenerate some of its endocrine tissue then it has potential clinical implication for the stabilising of diabetes mellitus. Ligated exocrine pancreatic tissue, devoid of its acinar component, has been shown to contain notable quantities of insulin positive cells. This presents intriguing possibilities as an alternative for donor tissue, usually obtained from rat foetuses, during foetal rat pancreas transplantation studies. Pancreas tissue harvested from duct ligated rats could replace the foetal tissue currently used in the treatment of experimental diabetes mellitus in laboratory animals in this laboratory.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Diabetes Mellitus is sinoniem met B-sel disfunksie. Endokriene regenerasie kan segmenteel bewerkstellig word deur eksperimentele afbinding van die pankreasbuis distaal tot sy samesmelting met die gemene galbuis. 'n Verskeidenheid van selle word vermoedelik by hierdie proses betrek. Dormante stamselle besit die vermoë en/of plastisiteit om 'n aantal vorms van metaplasie te ondergaan om nuwe en/of oortollige endokriene weefsel te vorm wat patologiese en/of eksperimenteel gekompromiseerde weefsel vervang. Die selontwikkelings volgorde wat tydens hierdie proses plaasvind is al vir 'n geruime tyd die middelpunt van 'n meningsverskil. Sommige studies dui daarop dat die in vivo selontwikkelingsvolgorde verskil van in vitro, volgens eksperimentele model en tipe proefdier gebruik. Die doel van die studie was die gebruik van 'n bestaande eksperimentele laboratorium proefdier model om pankreas eiland morfologiese verandering en/ofneogenese of beide in vivo te evalueer. Die oogmerk van die studie was om die omvang en volgorde van veranderings in die endokriene kompartement (neogenese/morfogenese) te bepaal deur gebruik te maak van 'n pankreas buis afbindings (PBA) model wat totale afsnyding van die buis tot gevolg het. PBA's is uitgevoer op ses groepe van 25 volwasse normale Sprague-Dawley (SD) laboratorium rotte (±300g) soos beskryf deur Hultquist en Jonsson (1965). Proefdiere is elke 12 uur geoffer vanaf dag een post-PBA tot dag tien en elke 24 uur daarna tot dag 14 soos beskryf deur Wang, Bouwens, Kloppel (1995) na die toediening van 50 mg/kg 5-Bromo-2-deoksi-uridien intraperitoneaal ('n selprolifererings aanduider) soos beskryf deur Wang et al. (1995). Die pankreas is werwyder, in Bouin se oplossing gefikseer en histologies geprosesseer. Sewe openvolgende seriesnitte (3-6 urn) is alternatiewelik gekleur met H & E, en immunositochemies, soos beskryf deur Guesdon, Terugnek, Avrameas (1979), vir insulien (I), glukagon (G), somatostatien (ST), pankreatiesepolipeptied (PP), neuropeptied tirosien (NPY) en peptied tirosien-tirosien (PYY). BrdU dubbel-immuunkleuring is ingesluit op dae 3,5, 7, 9 en 11 soos beskryf deur Wang et al. (1994). Sellulêre transformasie tussen dae een en 3~ dae is gekenmerk deur gelyktydige en totale uitwissing en/ofmetaplasie van die asinêre kompartement en die verskyning van selle immunorektiefvir I(11.53 ±1.5%), G (1.85 ±0.8%), PP (1.50 ±0.09%), ST (1.96 ±0.24%). Metaplasie was verantwoordelik vir merkbare veranderings in bestaande endokriene weefsel langs In transformasie weg waar eiland insulien kemselle vervang is deur PP- en ST-selle, glukagon buitelaag uitwissing en die toevallige verskyning van alle endokriene seltipes in the inter-eiland interstitium teen dag 3Y2. Dae 4Y2deur 6~ is gekenmerk deur verdere endokrinetoename terwyl dag 7 deur 14 gekenmerk is deur eiland hersamestelling en konsolidering. NPY immunoreaktiwiteit was vanaf dag 4~, met afwisseling, te bespeur terwyl PVV slegs tussen dae 4 en 7 In verskyning gemaak het. . Die resultate suggereer eerstens, PBA induseer die ontwikkeling van oortollige endokriene weefsel op In lukrake wyse versprei deur die ruimte voorheen deur asinêre parenchiem beset. Tweedens, dat die verskyning van insulien deur dié van PP, glukagon en somatostatien met minstens 24-uur voorafgegaan is. Die verhouding, van nuutgevormde endokriene weefsel wat met bestaande eilande assosieer om In aantal baie groot eilande te vorm, moet nog vasgestel word. Sulke strukture mag moontlik afskeidings toegang hê tot die bloedstroom, deur die glomerulusagtige kapillêre netwerk, in die eilandkern teenwoordig terwyl die oorblywende nuutgevormde endokrine weefsel "nuwe" apparte eilande vorm wat wel of gladnie toegang tot die bloedstroom mag hê nie. As gevolgtrekking, indien dit waar is dat volwasse pankreas eilandweefsel wel regenerasie kan ondergaan, dan het dit kliniese implikasie vir die stabilisering van diabetes mellitus. Weefsel verkry uit PBA bevat geen asinêre weefsel nie maar wel merkbare hoeveelhede endokriene weefsel, veral insulin positief. Dit bied dan interessante alternatiewe as skenker weefsel by fetal rot pankreas oorplantings. PBA en/of die oorplanting van pankreasbuis afgebinde weefsel, na in vitro weefsel kultuur, bied moontlikhede vir die behandeling van diabetes mellitus.

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