The speech act of apology in Setswana educational contexts

Mangwegape, Bridget Kesaobaka (2005-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2005.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: An apology in Setswana is offered ;when an individual has violated a social norm or want to restore any form of a complainable. When it is given, it serves as a remedial work,designed to smooth over any social disruption that was caused. Sometimes a person who is suppose to apologize may find reasons to minimize the degree of the offence. If the offence in question is big, a verbal apology may be insufficient to restore the damaged relationship. Male and female learners commit a lot of offences towards each other at school and they are obliged to apologize for such offences. In the process of apologizing, they are faced with a wide chioce of strategies to choose from. In most cases, male learners have a tendency of giving an explanation to their offences. They do not always seek for a direct apology. In the acceptance of their offences, they opt for longer strategies to apologize. Males seem to be either proud or shy to ask for an apology from females. Female learners on the other hand, do not want to use longer strategies to apologize, but they ask for forgiveness immidiately. It is not all the males who do not want to apologize directly to females, but there are some who apologize directly. They are the ones who take females as their equals and they also want to maintain a good relationship with them. The same applies with females, a minimal number of them use longer strategies to apologize. They do not use direct strategies. There are other strategies also useful to Setswana male and female learners, but their use is not so popular. Strategies like explicit acceptance of the blame and expression of self-deficiency are considered the least of manifested. An apology is usually influenced by the way the complainant shows his or her dissatisfaction. Male and female learners also differ with the way they complain. They use complaint strategies differently. Both male and female learners use direct accusation and indirect accusation extensively. But the difference comes by the fact that females are longer with their complaints than males. Females show their annoyance by involving more complaint strategies. Males do not take long to complain, they involve a few strategies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Apologie in Setswana word gedoen wanneer 'n individu 'n sosiale norm oortree het, of enige vorm van 'n klagte wil herstel. Wanneer dit gegee word, dien 'n apologie as remediële werk, ontwerp om enige sosiale ontwrigting wat veroorsaak is, uitstryk. Somtyds kan 'n persoon wat veronderstel is om 'n apologie aan te teken, redes vind om die graad van die oortreding te minimaliseer. Indien die oortreding baie groot is, kan 'n verbale apologie onvoldoende wees om die beskadigde verhouding te herstel. Manlike en vroulike Setswana-sprekende leerders pleeg talle oortredings teenoor mekaar by die skool, en hulle is verplig om apologie aan te teken teenoor mekaar. In die proses van apologie aanteken, word hulle gekonfronteer met In wye verskeidenheid strategieë waaruit hulle kan kies. In die meeste gevalle, het leerders die neiging om In verduideliking te gee vir hulle oortredings. Hulle kies nie altyd 'n direkte apologie nie. In die aanvaarding van hulle oortredings, kies hulle langer strategieë om apologie aan te teken. Manlike persone blyk óf te trots óf te skaam te wees om apologie aan te teken teenoor vroulike leerders. Vroulike leerders, hierteenoor, wil nie langer strategieë aanwend om apologie aan te teken nie, en hulle vra onmiddellik vir vergiffenis Dit is egter nie alle manlike leerders wat nie direk apologie aanteken teenoor vroulike leerders niesommige manlike leerders teken wel direk apologie aan, maar die gebruik daarvan is nie so gewild nie. Hulle is die manlike leerders wat die vroulike leerders as hulle gelykes sien en 'n goeie verhouding met hulle wil handhaaf. 'n Klein getal vroulike leerders gebruik langer strategieë om verskoning aan te teken en hulle gebruik nie direkte strategieë nie. Daar is ander strategieë wat ook bruikbaar is vir Setswana-sprekende manlike en vroulike leerders, maar die gebruik daarvan is nie so populêr nie. Strategieë soos die aanvaarding van blaam, en uitdrukking van self-tekort, word die minste gemanifesteer. 'n Apologie word gewoonlik beïnvloed deur die wyse waarop 'n klaer sy/haar ontevredenheid wys. Manlike en vroulike leerders vershil ook t.o.v. die wyse waarop hulle kla - hulle gebruik klagtestrategieë verskillend. Sowel manlike as vroulike leerders gebruik direkte en indirekte aantygings uitgebreid. Vroulike leerders neem egter langer met hulle klagtes as manlike leerders. Vroulike leerders wys hulle ontevredenheid deur meer klagte strategieë te gebruik, terwyl manlike leerders nie lank neem om te kla nie - hulle gebruik slegs 'n paar strategieë.

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