Talent management : a review of the literature from 2005-2008 and a selection of prior articles and publications to establish progress made in the field of identification of leadership potential

Hayes, Adriana Elizabeth (2009-03)

Thesis (MBA (Business Management))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: "Treat people as if they were what they ought to be, and you help them to become what they are capable of being" - Goethe as quoted in Melum (2002). The science of leadership is an area that changes over time as organisations and individuals change, grow and develop. The more complex the nature of leadership, the more difficult and challenging the identification of leadership potential and the subsequent development of leaders. The global environment further places its own demands on leadership requirements and the development of global competencies. Powerful and sophisticated talent management strategies and performance management initiatives have become extremely important in the competitive global talent market. To effectively integrate talent management into organisational strategy, line managers should embrace a talent mindset. Talent management should follow organisational values and should furthermore be supported by the desire of individuals in the organisation to embrace such values. In order to effectively execute talent management, organisations should clearly define their leadership requirements and the roles in which they require leadership accountability. The difference between managers and leaders should be clear in terms of the organisation's requirements and organisations must ensure that the basic conditions for leadership, according to Jaques & Clement (1991 : 47) are in place: • "A person must have the necessary competence to carry the role, including strongly valuing it. • A person must be free from any severely debilitating psychological characteristics that interfere with interpersonal characteristics. • Organisational conditions - structure and leadership practices - must be requisite. • Each person must be encouraged to use his own natural style". The most critical requirement for effective leadership is that the person who executes the leadership should value giving the leadership. Leadership, or talent development should aim at developing the leadership skills defined by the organisation. This development takes time and dedication. In order to ensure that the time and dedication spent on talent development is rewarded, the identification of such talent should be very well executed. Various definitions of talent exist and a number of factors, i.e. skills, knowledge, cognitive ability, potential, value systems and work preferences are considered in defining talent. Previous performance, future potential and individual aspiration should also be considered. Talent is mostly made up of a combination of abilities, individual motivation and opportunities offered. The definition of talent management is also very complex and is indicative of how the organisation sees talent management. Talent is normally managed and developed through talent pools and an alignment between competency models, performance objectives and people characteristics is used to fill talent pools. Effective and disciplined talent reviews should take place regularly to determine the progress made and whether individuals should still be included in the talent pool or not. The influences in the organisational environment calls for the understanding of human capability to manage complexity and knowledge of work levels in order to effectively execute talent pool management. Leadership development programmes should include the challenges and context of leadership, as well as the development of individual characteristics. A company cannot grow leaders unless an accurate development target is identified. The selection of this development target should be effective and only a few programmes could be identified that effectively support the identification of talent. Most companies use the competency approach, which has significant advantages, but also a number of disadvantages. These models are discussed in the research report. Talent management however does not terminate with the mere identification of potential and the intent to develop identified individuals. Leadership development places its own demands on organisations and the number of interventions that are required to effectively develop leadership talent. The efforts and resources awarded to talent development should however enhance organisational performance and the fact that organisations choose to ignore or discard the need for talent management could have detrimental effects on their sustainability.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: "Treat people as if they were what they ought to be, and you help them to become what they are capable of being" - Goethe as quoted in Melum (2002). Die wetenskap van leierskap is 'n veld wat gedurig verander soos organisasies en individue verander, groei en ontwikkel. Hoe meer kompleks die aard van die leierskap, hoe moeiliker en meer uitdagend is die identifisering van leierskapspotensiaal en die gevolglike ontwikkeling daarvan. Die internasionale omgewing plaas verdere eise op leierskapsbehoeftes en die ontwikkeling van globale bevoegdhede. Kragtige en gesofistikeerde talentbestuursstrategieë en prestasiebestuurinisiatiewe het uiters belangrik geraak in die kompeterende internasionale omgewing. Lynbestuur moet 'n talentbestuursingesteldheid ontwikkel ten einde talentbestuur effektief in organisasie-strategie te integreer. Talentbestuur moet noodwendig die waardes van die organisasie ondersteun en volg en moet ondersteun word deur die begeerte van individue in die organisasie om die waardes uit te leef. Ten einde talentbestuur effektief uit te voer, moet organisasies hulle leierskapsvereistes en die rolle waarin hulle leierskapsaanspreeklikheid vereis duidelik definieer. Die verskil tussen bestuurders en leiers moet ook duidelik wees met betrekking tot die organisasievereistes en daar moet verseker word dat die basiese vereistes vir leierskap soos geidentifiseer deur Jaques en Clement (1991 : 47) in plek is: • Persoon moet die nodige bevoegdhede hê om die rol op te neem en dit ook dienooreenkomstig waardeer. • 'n Persoon moet nie enige ernstige verswakkende sielkundige eienskappe hê wat indruis teen interpersoonlike eienskappe nie. • Organisatoriese toestande - struktuur en leierskapspraktyke - moet in plek wees. • Elke persoon moet aangemoedig word om sy eie natuurlike styl toe te pas". Die mees kritieke vereiste vir effektiewe leierskap is dat die persoon wat dit uitoefen, 'n waardering daarvoor moet hê. Leierskaps- of talentontwikkeling moet gemik wees op die ontwikkeling van leiereienskappe soos gedefinieer deur die organisasie. Diesulke ontwikkeling neem tyd en toewyding. Ten einde te verseker dat die tyd en toewyding wat aan leierskapsontwikkeling spandeer word die toepaslike opbrengs lewer, moet die identifisering van diesulke talent baie goed uitgevoer word. Verskeie definisies van talent bestaan en 'n aantal faktore soos vaardighede, kennis, kognitiewe vermoëns, potensiaal, waardestelsels en werksvoorkeure moet oorweeg word in die identifisering van talent. Vorige prestasie, toekomstige potensiaal en individuele aspirasies moet ook in ag geneem word. Talent bestaan hoofsaaklik uit 'n kombinasie van vaardighede, individuele motivering en geleenthede. Die definisie van talentbestuur is ook baie kompleks en is 'n aanduiding van hoe talentbestuur deur die organisasie beskou word. Talent word normaalweg bestuur en ontwikkel deur talentmassas en 'n groepering van bekwaamheidsmodelle, prestasiedoelwitte en menslike eienskappe word gebruik om diesulke talentmassas saam te stel. Effektiewe en gedissiplineerde talentoorsigte moet gereeld plaasvind om die vordering te monitor en te bepaal of individue steeds ingesluit moet word in die talent-massa , al dan nie. Die invloede van die organisatoriese omgewing vra ook vir 'n goeie begrip van menslike aanleg om kompleksiteit te hanteer en 'n kennis van die vlakke van werk ten einde effektiewe talentbestuur daar te stel. Leierskapsontwikkelings-programme moet die uitdagings en konteks van leierskap, sowel as die ontwikkeling van individuele eienskappe insluit. 'n Organisasie kan nie leiers ontwikkel alvorens 'n spesifieke ontwikkelingsdoelwit geidentifiseer is nie. Die keuse van hierdie ontwikkelingsdoelwit moet effektief wees en slegs 'n paar programme kon geidentifiseer word wat die identifisering van talent effektief ondersteun. Meeste organisasies gebruik die bevoegdheidsbenadering, wat verskeie voordele, maar ook aansienlike nadele het. Hierdie programme en modelle word in die navorsingsverslag bespreek. Talentbestuur eindig egter nie met die identifikasie van potensiaal en die voorneme om geidentifiseerde individue te ontwikkel nie. Leierskapsontwikkeling plaas sy eie vereistes en druk op organisasies en die aantal intervensies wat vereis word om leierskap effektief te ontwikkel. Die moeite en hulpbronne wat aan talentontwikkeling toegesê word, behoort organisasie-prestasie te verbeter en die feit dat organisasies kies om die nodigheid van talentbestuur te ontken kan 'n nadelige uitwerking op toekomstige volhoubaarheid het.

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