Veerkragtigheidsfaktore in Suid-Afrikaanse en Belgiese enkelouergesinne

Aspeling, Elmien (2004-04)

On t.p.: Magister in Lettere en Wysbegeerte (Voorligtingsielkunde)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the identification and comparison of resilience factors in Belgian and South African single parent families. The participants (parents and children in single parent families) from the two countries were identified on the basis of the nature of the crisis and the stage of development of the families. Self-reporting questionnaires were completed separately by the parent and a child, as representatives of the family. The questionnaires comprised a biographical questionnaire (which also included an open-ended question), the Relative and Friend Support Index, the Social Support Index, Family Crises Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales, the Family Sense of Coherence Scale, and the Family Hardiness Index. The responses from parents and children were analysed separately, therefore dealing with them as four groups (Belgian parents, South African parents, Belgian children and South African children). Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated to determine which factors were most strongly related to family coherence (Family Sense of Coherence). Family coherence is a quality that provides an indication of the measure of success achieved with adaptation following a crisis (divorce). This was followed with regression analyses for identifying a group of resilience factors that would, in combination, provide the best predictor for successful family adjustment. The results of this study confirm that of previous research, namely in the findings that the different populations reveal similarities as well as differences with regard to qualities and resources utilized for successful adaptation after a crisis. Results reveal that the inherent strength of the family in all four groups (parents and children from both countries) is seen as one of the most important resilience factors (as measured by the Family Hardiness Index). Aspects that show strong correlation with family coherence are: a sense of control (the perception of how well the family is able to deal with a crisis) over the outcomes of life experiences; the family's orientation with regard to challenges that have to be faced; as well as an active orientation (tendency to do something about the situation) with regard to adaptation in a stressful situation (as measured by the Family Hardiness Index). The importance of redefining the problem (crisis) in terms of its significance for the family (positive, negative or neutral) was also identified as a core resilience factor. Results from the parents in both countries revealed that the number of years of separation/number of years that had elapsed since the divorce was a significant resilience factor. The longer the time period after the divorce, the better the adjustment. A significant difference was found between the results obtained for Belgian and South African children with regard to the duration of the parents' marriage and the duration of the period since the parents' divorce, and the relevance of this for the family's adaptation. The children from both countries revealed similarities with regard to the importance of the utilization and the support of members of the immediate family, the extended family and friends to overcome the crisis. The results obtained for parents in both countries did not confirm this aspect, i.e. the value of support from family and friends.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie fokus op die identifisering en vergelyking van veerkragtigheidsfaktore van Belgiese en Suid-Afrikaanse enkelouergesinne. Die deelnemers (ouers en kinders in enkelouergesinne) wat in beide lande geïdentifiseer is, is op grond van die aard van die krisis en die ontwikkelingstadium van die gesinne geïdentifiseer. Selfrapporteringsvraelyste is afsonderlik deur die ouer en 'n kind, as verteenwoordigers van die gesin, voltooi. Die vraelyste het bestaan uit 'n biografiese vraelys (wat ook 'n oop-einde vraag ingesluit het), die Relative and Friend Support Index, die Social Support Index, Family Crises Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales, die Family Sense of Coherence Scale, en die Family Hardiness Index. Die ouers en kinders se response is afsonderlik ontleed, dus was daar vier groepe (Belgiese ouers, Suid-Afrikaanse ouers, Belgiese kinders en Suid-Afrikaanse kinders). Pearson produk-moment korrelasies is bereken om vas te stel watter faktore die sterkste verband toon met gesinskoherensie (Family Sense of Coherence). Gesinskoherensie is 'n eienskap wat 'n aanduiding gee van die mate van suksesvolle aanpassing ná 'n krisis (egskeiding). Daama is regressie-ontledings gedoen om 'n groepering van veerkragtigheidsfaktore te identifiseer wat gekombineerd die beste voorspellers vir suksesvolle gesinsaanpassing is. Die resultate van hierdie studie bevestig dié van vorige navorsing, naamlik dat die verskillende populasies ooreenkomste, maar ook verskille, toon ten opsigte van kenmerke en hulpbronne wat hulle vir suksesvolle aanpassing na 'n krisis benut. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat inteme sterkte in die gesin in al vier groepe (beide lande se ouers en kinders) as een van die belangrikste veerkragtigheidsfaktore beskou word (soos met die Family Hardiness Index gemeet). Die volgende aspekte, te wete: sin vir kontrole (die persepsie van hoe goed die gesin 'n krisis sal kan hanteer) oor die uitkomste van lewenservaringe, die oriëntering van die gesin ten opsigte van uitdagings wat aan die gesin gestel word, asook 'n aktiewe oriëntering (geneigdheid om iets aan die situasie te doen) wat betref die aanpassing in 'n stressituasie (soos gemeet met die Family Hardiness Index) toon 'n sterk korrelasie met gesinskoherensie. Die belangrikheid om die probleem (krisis) in terme van die betekenis wat dit vir die gesin het, te herdefinieer (positief, negatief of neutraal) is as nog 'n kem-veerkragtigheidsfaktor geïdentifiseer. Beide lande se ouers se resultate het getoon dat die aantal jare wat die ouers geskei was 'n beduidende veerkragtigheidsfaktor is. Hoe langer die tyd na die egskeiding hoe beter die aanpassing. 'n Beduidende verskil is gevind tussen die Belgiese kinders en Suid-Afrikaanse kinders se resultate ten opsigte van die tydsduur van die ouers se huwelik en die tyd sedert die ouers geskei is, en die verband wat dit met gesinsaanpassing het. Die kinders van beide lande het ooreengestem ten opsigte van die die belangrikheid van die gebruik van, en die ondersteuning van gesinslede, familie asook vriende om 'n krisis te bowe te kom. Die resultate van beide lande se ouers het nie die voorafgaande aspek, naamlik die waarde van ondersteuning deur gesins-, familielede en vriende, bevestig nie.

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