'n Ondersoek na betekenis in prenteboeke vanuit 'n vertaalteoretiese perspektief : met spesiale verwysing na illustrasies vir die werk van Annie M.G. Schmidt en ander herskrywing tussen Afrikaans en Nederlands

Grobler, Piet (2004-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Illustration and translation have so much in common that the theoretical "instruments" used to describe, substantiate and evaluate translated works, can also be used where picture books are concerned. These similarities include the fact that illustrations as well as translations function semiotically - both relay narratives by means of systems of signs or codes. As signs, the contents of translations and illustrations have meaning or obtain significance only once they are read by an individual - homo significons - in a specific context. Another significant similarity between translation and illustration is the fact that both deal with the intercultural transfer of a narrative. The theory of translation takes cognisance of the contextual and, from the perspective of gender and postcolonial studies, points to the fact that cultural differences (and the power imbalances and ideologies they often imply) are closely linked to translation strategies. The literary environment and the circumstances in which the translation (or picture book) is produced, are also relevant for the meaning that can be ascribed to the picture book. In the literary environment (and indeed in most academic disciplines) the didactic benefit of picture books is accentuated more or takes precedence over the aesthetic qualities which these may have. Key concepts and theorists for this study are: • illustrations and translations as rewritings can be worthy and influential renderings of the source text • intertextuality will be the undisputed starting point for the (inevitably interdisciplinary) study of picture books • the skopos-theory according to which the objective of the book greatly determines the appearance and meaning thereof • Riitta Oittinen's theory of translation according to carnivalism which focuses on the child receptor Geoff Moss' and Jens Thiele's reference to ambiguity and experimentation in picture books Edward Venuti's reference to two (apparently opposing) translation strategies, namely domestication and foreignization. With this study I conclude that meaning in translated picture books is brought to the text by all participants and can therefore never be completed. Picture book illustrations as aesthetic products demand that the rewriter experiment with the narrative in a carnavalistic and unrestricted manner. At the same time, however, the illustrator or tranlator should anchor this experimentation in reality by meeting other role players (publishers, educationalists, literary theorists, authors and readers) in dialogical rewriting.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Illustrasie toon soveelooreenkomste met vertaling dat die teoretiese "instrumente" waarmee vertaalde werk beskryf, begrond en beoordeel word, ook ten opsigte van prenteboeke gebruik kan word. Hierdie ooreenkomste sluit in dat sowel illustrasies as vertalings semioties funksioneer deurdat hulle narratiewe deur middel van tekensisteme of kodes oordra. As tekens kry die inhoud van vertalings en illustrasies egter eers betekenis of maak hulle sin wanneer hulle in 'n bepaalde konsteks deur 'n mens, homo significans, gelees word. 'n Ander belangrike ooreenkoms tussen vertaling en illustrasie is dat albei handeloor die interkulturele oordrag van 'n narratief. Die vertaalteorie neem pertinent kennis van die konteks van die geskrewe werk en wys byvoorbeeld vanuit genderstudies en postkoloniale studies daarop dat kulturele ongelykhede (en die magswanbalanse en ideologie daaraan verbonde) dikwels onderliggend aan 'n vertaalstrategie is. Die literêre en produksie-omgewing en -omstandighede waarin die vertaling (of prenteboek) tot stand kom is ook relevant vir die betekenis wat aan die prenteboek toegedig kan word. In die literêre omgewing (en trouens in die meeste akademiese dissiplines) word prenteboeke se didaktiese nut veel eerder beklemtoon of erken as die estetiese kwaliteite wat dit mag hê. Sleutelkonsepte en teoretiese raamwerke vir hierdie studie is: dat illustrasies, soos vertalings, as herskrywings waardige en invloedryke weergawes van die bronteks kan wees dat intertekstualiteit die ononderhandelbare vertrekpunt sal wees vir 'n studie van prenteboeke (wat uiteraard 'n interdissiplinêre studieveld is) die uitgangspunt van die skopos-teorie waarvolgens die oogmerk met die boek die voorkoms (en betekenis) daarvan tot 'n groot mate sal bepaal Riitta Oittinen se vertaalteorie volgens karnavalisme wat op die kinderreseptor fokus GeoffMoss en Jens Thiele se verwysing na dubbelsinnigheid en eksperimentering in prenteboeke Edward Venuti se uitwys van twee (oënskynlik opponerende) vertaalstrategieë, inburgering en vervreemding. Met die studie bevind ek dat betekenis in vertaalde prenteboeke deur alle rolspelers na die teks geneem word en derhalwe nooit voltooibaar is nie. Prenteboekillustrasies as estetiese produkte vereis dat die herskrywer daarvan op 'n karnavalistiese en ongebonde manier met die narratief eksperimenteer, maar dat dit in die realiteit geanker word deurdat ander rolspelers (uitgewers, opvoeders, letterkundiges, outeurs en lesers) in dialogiese herskrywing (vertaling en illustrasie) ontmoet word.

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