Die ontwikkeling van 'n geletterdheidsprogram vir Graad R-leerders

Pepler, Anel (2004-04)

Thesis (DEd)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Language is central to everyone's life, forms part of personal growth, interaction with others, and provides access to learning and development. In a multilingual country like South Africa a learner is not only expected to have a high level of proficiency in his mother tongue, but also in a second language. Investigations into the literacy proficiency of learners in the Foundation Phase, reveal that learners cannot read sufficiently well at the end of Grade 3. These investigations therefore focus attention on the instruction of literacy. The Revised National Curriculum Statement (2002) proposes that a balanced approach be adapted so that learners can develop skills and strategies to decipher the "code" of written language. The object of this study is to develop a theoretically founded Literacy programme for Grade R learners, which will equip them, in an informal and enjoyable manner, with an understanding of the concept of writing and getting to know the symbols of writing. This can be used as an alternative system of indications in initial reading for Grade 1. The focus of literary review is specifically directed towards two approaches in literacy, namely the holistic approach and the phonics approach. The holistic approach deals with literacy development unitarily and emphasizes concept formation, following a topdown process in reading instruction. The point of departure of the proponents of the phonics approach is that preparation for reading is done directly with written language. This approach proposes a bottom-up process. Phonemic awareness with letter-sound correspondence is instructed explicitly, directly and systematically prior to, and independently, of reading instruction. A positive attitude regarding reading and books is very important in the development of literacy and as much as 50% of attention in presentations ought to focus on establishing positive attitudes. To accomplish this, presentations should be planned according to the principles of early child development in terms of which the learners' level of development, capabilities, needs and fields of interest are taken as the point of departure. The empirical investigation in this study comprises a case study of a Grade R class. An intervention programme, in which the focus fell upon letter-sound correspondence, was implemented during the case study. The lessons introduced letter-sound correspondence, which was directly linked to the existing Literacy Curriculum being applied in Grade R at the time. A balanced approach, in terms of which components of both approaches in literacy development were incorporated, was followed. How a young child learns and attains a grasp of the world about him was thoroughly taken into account in the design of the intervention programme. No formal supervision was included in the intervention programme, but objective data were obtained through a thorough literature study, participatory observation by different observers and interviews with several role players. Grade R learners are eager to learn, are at a very impressionable stage of their lives and want to know more about writing and books. These learners were motivated so that they participated enthusiastically in the programme. Positive attitudes were inculcated and they eagerly commenced Grade 1.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Taal staan sentraal in elkeen se lewe; nie aileen vorm dit deel van sy persoonlike groei en sy interaksie met ander nie, maar dit is ook sy toegang tot leer en ontwikkeling. In 'n veeltalige land soos Suid-Afrika word nie net 'n hoe taalbevoegdheidsvlak in die leerder se huistaal verwag nie, maar ook in 'n tweede taal. Ondersoeke na die geletterdheidsvermoens van leerders in die Grondslagfase, wat bevind dat leerders aan die einde van Graad 3 nie behoorlik kan lees nie, vestig die aandag op die onderrig van geletterdheid. Die Hersiene Nasionale Kurrikulumverklaring (2002) stel voor dat 'n gebalanseerde benadering gevolg word sodat die leerder vaardighede en strategiee kan ontwikkel om die "kode" van geskrewe taal te ontsluit. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie is om 'n teoreties gefundeerde Geletterdheidsprogram vir Graad R-Ieerders te ontwikkel wat die jong leerder toerus om die konsepte van skrif te verstaan, skrifsimbole op 'n informele en genotvolle wyse te leer ken sodat dit as 'n alternatiewe aanwysingsisteem gebruik kan word in aanvangslees in Graad 1. Die literatuuroorsig vestig die aandag veral op twee benaderings in die geletterdheidsveld, naamlik die holistiese benadering en die fonetiese benadering (phonics). Die holistiese benadering hanteer geletterdheidsontwikkeling as 'n eenheid, beklemtoon begripsvorming en volg 'n bo-na-onder-proses in leesonderrig. Voorstanders van die fonetiese benadering gaan egter van die standpunt af uit dat voorbereiding vir lees direk met geskrewe taal gedoen word en beveel 'n onder-na-boproses aan. Dit word aanbeveel dat fonemiese bewustheid met letter-klankkorrespondering eksplisiet, direk en sistematies onderrig word voor en onafhanklik van leesonderrig. . 'n Positiewe ingesteldheid ten opsigte van lees en boeke is krities belangrik in. die ontwikkeling van geletterdheid en tot soveel as 50% van die klem in aanbiedinge behoort op die vestiging van positiewe houdings te fokus. Om dit te bewerkstellig word aanbiedinge volgens die beginsels van vroeekindontwikkeling beplan deurdat die leerder se ontwikkelingsvlak, sy verrnoens, behoeftes en belangstellingsveld as vertrekpunt geneem word. Die empiriese ondersoek van hierdie studie behels 'n gevallestudie by 'n Graad R-klas. 'n Intervensieprogram wat op letter-klankkorrespondering fokus, is tydens die gevallestudie ge"lmplementeer. Die lesse het letter-klankkorrespondering bekend gestel en sluit direk aan by die bestaande Geletterdheidskurrikulum wat alreeds in Graad R toegepas word. 'n Gebalanseerde benadering is nagestreef deurdat komponente van albei benaderings ge·inkorporeeris. Die wyse waarop die jong kind leer en hoe hy begrip van die wereld am hom verkry, is deeglik in die antwerp van die intervensieprogram in ag geneem. Geen formele toetsing is in die intervensieprogram ingesluit nie, maar objektiewe data is verkry deur 'n grondige literatuurstudie, deelnemende observasie deur verskillende waarnemers asook onderhoude met verskillende rolspelers. Die Graad R-Ieerders wat leergierig en op 'n baie ontvanklike stadium van hul lewe is en graag van skrif en boeke wil weet, was gemotiveerd en het met oorgawe aan die program deelgeneem. Positiewe houdings is gekweek en die leerders kon Graad 1 met entoesiasme aanpak.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49923
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