Stationary phase-specific expression of dominant flocculation genes for controlled flocculation of yeast

Domingo, Jody L. (Jody Lawren) (2003-04)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Flocculation can be defined as the asexual aggregation of yeast cells in a liquid environment. This aggregation of cells, also referred to as "floc formation", will in most cases lead to rapid settling or sedimentation. However, in so-called top-fermenting yeast strains, the floes can move to the surface of the liquid growth substrate to form a thin layer, called a "velum", that has been compared to other microbial biofilms. The factors that trigger flocculation can be divided into two groups, physical/chemical (e.g. sugar content, the presence of inorganic salts, organic solvents, ethanol concentration, pH, agitation etc.) and genetic factors (genes that encode for proteins that are either directly or indirectly involved in flocculation). In top-fermenting yeast strains, several physical and chemical factors that trigger the process have been described, including ethanol concentration, the presence of organic solvents, the absence of molecular oxygen and the presence of inorganic salts (Ca2+ and Mg2+). These factors appear to affect the cell hydrophobicity and the cell surface charge. As for genetic factors, no specific genes have thus far been associated with flocculation in top fermenting yeast strains. In bottom-fermenting yeast strains, the physical and chemical factors that affect the process are similar to the ones described for top-fermenting yeast strains, but include, more specifically, the concentration of hexoses in the media (mannose or glucose), which may inhibit the process. Indeed, flocculation in bottom-fermenting yeast strains has been divided into the NewFlo type (inhibited by both mannose and glucose) and the Fl01 type (inhibited by mannose) on the basis of the inhibitory effect of specific sugars. Various genes have been associated with the flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast strains. Through genetic analysis, the genes have been categorised into dominant genes, semidominant genes and recessive genes. In order to better understand the role of some of the proteins responsible for flocculation in S. cerevisiae, and to create strains whose flocculation properties would correspond to those wanted in the wine and beer industries, three of the dominant flocculation genes, FL01, FL05 and FL011, were placed under the control of the promoters of the stationary phase-induced genes, ADH2 and HSP30. This was achieved by replacing the native promoters of the flocculation genes with the heterologous promoters through homologous recombination. The laboratory strain FY23, which is nonflocculent due to the absence of the transcription factor that is required for flocculation, F108p,was used as a model system. Some of the transformed strains showed high flocculation, especially when the genes were placed under control of the ADH2 promoter. In addition to this, the strains carrying a modified FL011 gene showed increased adhesion to solid agar media and were able to invade the growth substrate. These strains also showed an increased velum-forming ability when grown in media containing only non-fermentable carbon sources.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Flokkulasie kan gedefinieër word as die ongeslagtelike aggregasie van gisselle in 'n vloeibare medium. Hierdie aggregasie van selle, kan ook na verwys word as flok formasie, en in meeste gevalle lei dit tot In vinnige sedimentering. In oppervlak-fermenterende giste, beweeg die flokke na die oppervlakte van die vloeibare medium om sodoende 'n flor -lagie te vorm. Hierdie verskynsel was ook al gevind in ander organismes. Verskeie faktore is verantwoordelik vir die effektiwiteit van flokkuklasie. Hierdie faktore kan in twee groepe verdeel word, nl. fisiese en chemiese faktore (byv. suikerkonsentrasie, die teenwoordigheid van anorganiese soute, organiese oplossings, etanol konsentrasie, pH, ens.) en genetiese faktore (gene wat kodeer vir die proteïene wat of direk of indirek betrokke is by flokkulasie). In oppervlak-fermenterende giste is daar al heelwat informasie beskikbaar omtrent fisies en chemiese faktore se effekte op flokkulasie. Van die faktore waarvan heelwat informasie beskikbaar is sluit in, etanol konsentrasie, die teenwoordigheid van organiese oplossings, die afwesigheid van molekulêre suurstof en die teenwoordigheid van anorganiese soute (Ca2+ en Mg2+). Hierdie faktore toon 'n effek of hidrofobisiteit en elektriese lading op die seloppervlakte. Geen genetiese faktore kon tot dusver gekoppel word aan flokkulasie in oppervlak-fermenterende giste nie. Benede-oppervlak fermenterende giste se fisies en chemiese faktore wat effektiwiteit van flokkulasie beïnvloed is dieselfde as die van oppervlak-fermenterende giste, maar sluit in meer spesifiek, die konsentrasie van heksoses in die media (nl. mannose en glukose), wat 'n inhiberende effek het op flokkulasie. Die benede-oppervlak fermenterende giste se flokkulasie kan in twee segmente verdeel word nl. die NewFlo tipe (word geïnhibeer deur die teenwoordigheid van mannose en glukose) en die Flo1-tipe (word geïnhibeer deur slegs die teenwoordigheid van mannose). Verskeie gene was ook al geidentifiseer wat die effektiwiteit van flokkulasie beïnvloed in benede-oppervlak fermenterende giste. Hierdie gene kan in drie kategorieë opverdeel word, nl dominante-, semi-dominante- en ressessiewe flokkulerende gene. Ten orde 'n beter begrip te kry rondom die proteïene verantwoordelik vir die meeste effektiwiteit ten opsigte van flokkulasie in S. cerevisiae, asook om giste te manipuleer om spesifieke flokkulasie eienskappe te toon volgens die belange van die wyn en bierindustrieë, was drie dominante flokkulerende gene, nl. FL01, FL05, en FL011, onder regulering van stationêre fase-geïnduseerde promotors, PADH2 en PHSP30, geplaas. Dit was verkry deur die vervanging van die wilde tipe promotors van die drie gene met die stationêre fase-geïnduseerde promotors deur middel van homoloë rekombinasie. Die laboratorium gisras, FY23, wat 'n nie-flokkulerende gisras is vanweë die afwesigheid van 'n transkripsionele faktor, Flo8p, wat verantwoordelik is vir die aktivering van belangrike gene in flokkulasie, was gebruik as 'n wilde tipe ras. Sommige van die transformante het In hoë mate van flokkulasie getoon, veral wanneer onder die regulering van die PADH2. Tesame met laasgenoemde verskynsel, was daar gevind dat FL011-transformante 'n verhoging in hul vermoeë het om te bind aan die agar en ook om die agar te penetreer. Laasgenoemde gisrasse het ook die vermoë getoon om 'n flor-lagie te vorm bo-op die oppervlakte van die medium, maar slegs wanneer dit in niefermenteerbare koolstofbronbevattende media opgegroei word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL:
This item appears in the following collections: