'n Evaluering van die volksboukuns van die Swellendam-omgewing

Barnard, Eureka (2003-04)

Thesis(MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Swellendam is situated in the eastern part of the Overberg and is bounded by the districts of Bredasdorp in the south, Caledon and Robertson in the west, Montagu and Ladisrnith in the north, and Riversdale and Heidelberg in the east. Before colonisation mainly two Khoikhoi tribes, the Chainouquas and the Hessequas, lived there. Because of the favourable climate and terrain, the expansion into the interior of the European settlers after 1700 happened most rapidly across the Hottentots Holland mountains in the direction of the Breede River. On 12 November 1743 a sub-drostdy for the Colonie in de verre afgeleegene districten was founded and a landdrost and heemraad members were appointed. On 26 October 1747 the Political Council decided to name this district Swellendam. The drostdy and a number of other buildings were completed by 1747. The pioneers applied in the Swellendam area the methods of building to which they were accustomed, which they knew by tradition or to which they had been exposed. The plans which were employed had either been used by previous generations or appeared widely in the area. For almost two centuries the elongated wing plan in the form of an I, T, U, L, etcetera was followed at the Cape. In the area studied the T-plan, especially, is most common, with a considerable number of longhouses (I-plan) in which man and beast were lodged under one roof. Kapstyl (roof-truss), clay and stone houses are the three types of homes of which remnants have been found in the Swellendam area. The kapstyl structure was used as a temporary home and also as bam in the area under study. Clay houses were the first more permanent structures erected in the Swellendam area. These homes were probably built without the assistance of masons, joiners, carpenters and blacksmiths. In this area stone buildings were primarily erected at livestock stations and, compared to clay houses, there are few remnants of stone-built homes. A few combination patterns have been found in the lay-out of outbuildings. Examples of these are the stables-and-waggon shed combinations and the stables-waggon shed-kraal, as well as the stables-waggon shed-hen's nest openings and the slave quarters-milking shedwaggon shed combinations.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Swellendam is gelee in die oostelike deel van die Overberg en word begrens deur die distrikte van Bredasdorp in die suide, Caledon en Robertson in die weste, Montagu en Ladismith in die noorde, en Riversdal en Heidelberg in die ooste. Voor kolonisasie het daar in die streek hoofsaaklik twee Khoikhoi stamme gewoon, die Chainouquas en die Hessequas. As gevolg van die gunstige klimaat en die terrein het die binnelandse uitbreiding van die Europese setlaars na 1700 die vinnigste oor die Hottentots- Hollandberge in die rigting van die Breederivier plaasgevind. Op 12 November 1743 is 'n sub-drostdy vir die Colonie in de verre afgeleegene districten gestig en 'n landdros en heemrade is aangestel. Op 26 Oktober 1747 besluit die Politi eke Raad om hierdie distrik Swellendam te noem. Die drostdy en 'n aantal ander geboue is teen 1747 voltooi. Die pioniers het die bouwyse waaraan hulle gewoond was, wat hulle deur tradisie geken het of waaraan hulle blootgestel was, ook in die Swellendam-omgewing toegcpas. Die bouplanne wat gebruik is, is of deur die voorgeslagte aangewend, of het algemeen in die gebied voorgekom. Vir byna twee eeue is die verlengde vleuelplan in die vorm van 'n I, T, U, L ensovoorts, aan die Kaap gevolg. In die studiegebied kom veral die T-plan die meeste voor met 'n beduidende hoeveelheid langhuise (l-plan) waar mens en dier onder een dak gehuisves is. Kapstyl, klei en kliphuise is die drie woningtipes waarvan oorblyfsels in die Swellendamstreek aangetref is. Die kapstylstruktuur is in die studiegebied gebruik as tydelike woning en ook as SkuUL Kleihuise was die eerste meer permanente strukture wat in die Swellendam-omgewing opgerig is. Die wonings is waarskynlik opgerig sonder die hulp van messelaars, skrynwerkers, timmermans en grofsmede. In hierdie streek is daar hoofsaaklik op die veeposte met klip gebou en is daar in vergelyking met kleihuise min oorblyfsels van wonings wat met klip gebou is. 'n Paar kombinasiepatrone is in die uitleg van buitegeboue gevind. Voorbeelde hiervan is die stalle-en-waenhuis-kombinasies en die stalle-waenhuis-kraal, stalle-waenhuishoendernes- openinge, en die slawekwartier-melkery-waenhuis-kombinasies.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49771
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