Synthesis of surface active alkanes for cellulose modification

Moses, Alvira (2006-03)

119 leaves single sided printed, preliminary pages and numbered pages 1-101. Includes bibliography and a list of tables, figures, schemes and abbreviations. Digitized at 300 dpi (OCR), used Bizhub 250.

Thesis (MSc (Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The properties and interactions of cellulose surfaces are of a great technical interest during papermaking and recycling. Sizing, the modification of fiber surfaces, e.g. with the purpose to reduce water penetration into the paper structure, plays an important role in obtaining paper with good printability and water resistance. Water resistance is the key end-property of paper being investigated in this study. Firstly a comparison was made between the degree of surface modification of cellulose by means of anionic, nonionic and reactive surfactants. The amount of surfactant adsorbed by the paperboard was determined and the paper surface evaluated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The sizing efficiency of the three industrial surfactants was evaluated in order to establish the surfactant structure best suited for sizing recycled paperboard. This was done via the Cobb test, an industrial method to measure water uptake by paper, and contact angle measurements. The reactive surfactant was found to have the best sizing efficiency and focus shifted to synthesizing selected copolymer surfactants via free radical copolymerization. Two copolymers were synthesized, with maleic anhydride as the polar part in both. Butyl methacrylate and lauryl methacrylate were selected as the hydrophobic parts in the respective copolymer systems. The unavailability of reactivity ratios for the respective copolymer systems led to the use of in situ proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy CH NMR) for the determination of the co-monomer incorporation in both copolymer systems. Quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy was also employed in order to establish the co-monomer content of the isolated copolymers obtained during bench-scale (laboratory) experiments. Lastly, a comparison of the degree of surface modification of cellulose was made between that which was achieved with the industrial reactive surfactant and that with the two synthesized polymeric reactive surfactants. The two synthesized polymeric surfactants were found to have a better sizing efficiency than the industrial reactive surfactant, and the maleic anhydride-lauryl methacrylate copolymer system gave the best results.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die eienskappe en interaksies van sellulose-oppervlaktes is van groot tegniese belang gedurende die vervaardiging en hergebruik van papier. Oppervlakte behandeling, die modifikasie van vesel-oppervlaktes bv. met die doel om water indringing in die papierstruktuur te verminder, speel 'n belangrike rol in die daarstel van papier met goeie drukkwaliteit en waterweerstand. Waterweerstand is die sleuteleienskap van papier wat in hierdie werkstuk ondersoek word. Eerstens is daar 'n vergelyking getref tussen die verandering van sellulose-oppervlaktes deur middel van anioniese, nie-ioniese en reaktiewe sepe. Die hoeveelheid seep geabsorbeer deur die papierbord is bepaal en die papier-oppervlak ondersoek deur middel van skandeer-elektronmikroskopie (SEM). Die behandelingsdoeltreffendheid van die drie industriele sepe is ondersoek om vas te stel watter seep die beste struktuur het om hergebruikte papierbord effektief te behandel. Dit is gedoen deur middel van die Cobbtoets, 'n industriele metode om wateropname van papier te meet, asook kontakhoekmetings. Daar is gevind dat die reaktiewe seep die beste behandelingsdoeltreffendheid het en daar is vervolgens gekonsentreer op die bereiding van geselekteerde reaktiewe kopolimeersepe deur middel van vryeradikaalkopolimerisasie. Twee kopolimere is berei, met maleienanhidried as die polere gedeeite van albei. Butielmetakrilaat en laurielmetakrilaat is gekies vir die nie-polere gedeeltes van die onderskeie kopolimeersisteme. Die onbeskikbaarheid van reaktiwiteitsverhoudings vir die onderskeie kopolimeersisteme het gelei tot die gebruik van in situ proton kern magnetiese resonansie spektroskopie eH KMR) vir die bepaling van die ko-monomeer insluiting in beide kopolimeersisteme. Kwantitatiewe koolstofdertienkemmagnetieseresonansie spektroskopie (13C KMR) is ook gebruik om die ko-monomeerinhoud van die geisoleerde kopolimere, verkry tydens laboratoriumeksperimente, te bepaal. Laastens is 'n vergelyking getref tussen die graad van modifikasie van selluloseoppervlaktes deur middel van die industriele reaktiewe seep in vergelyking met die twee bereide polimeriese reaktiewe sepe. Daar is gevind dat die twee gesintetiseerde polimeriese sepe beter behandelingsdoeltreffendheid as die industriele reaktiewe seep het, met die maleienanhidried-laurielmetakrilaat-kopolimeersisteem wat die beste resultaat lewer.

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