The law relating to documentary credits from a South African perspective with special reference to the legal position of the issuing and confirming banks

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dc.contributor.advisor Van Wyk, A. H.
dc.contributor.advisor Butler, W.
dc.contributor.author Hugo, Charl Francois
dc.contributor.other University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Private Law.
dc.date.accessioned 2010-09-16T14:11:27Z
dc.date.available 2010-09-16T14:11:27Z
dc.date.issued 1996-12
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4676
dc.description Thesis ((LLD (Law))--University of Stellenbosch, 1996. en_ZA
dc.description 424 leaves single sided printed, preliminary pages and numbered pages 1-356. Includes bibliography, digitized at 300 dpi (OCR), used Bizhub 250. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The documentary credit is one of the most important methods of payment utilised in international trade. This versatile instrument is encountered in a variety of forms. In its simplest form it is an undertaking by a bank given on application by a buyer-importer (the bank's client) to pay the seller-exporter (the beneficiary) against delivery of stipulated documents. It has two essential characteristics: (i) the bank's undertaking to pay the beneficiary is independent of the contract of sale and the contract between the bank and its client; and (ii) the bank will pay only against the precise documents stipulated in the credit. In Chapter One the different relationships established between the parties involved are dealt with against this background, and the different types of credits are discussed. Documentary credits are, comparatively speaking, modern instruments. Possible historical origins are explored briefly in Chapter Two. Documentary credits are virtually invariably applied for and issued subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (the UCP). The UCP is a set of rules formulated by the International Chamber of Commerce. The modern history of documentary credits as reflected in the development of the UCP is discussed in Chapter Three. The legal nature of the UCP is analysed from a civilian, common-law and South African perspective in Chapter Four. The legal nature of the relationship between the bank and the beneficiary is the focal point of Chapter Five. The question is approached from a civilian (especially German and Dutch), common-law (especially English and American) and South African point of view. Special attention is devoted to the ability (or inability) of the traditional law of contract of the different jurisdictions to provide a theoretical foundation for (i) the independence of the bank's obligation, and (ii) the irrevocability of the bank's undertaking. The conclusion arrived at is that the South African law of contract is able to provide an adequate basis for this relationship in general and these two matters in particular. In the final chapter the defences available to the bank against the beneficiary's claim are scrutinised, as well as the possibility of the bank being interdicted from paying the beneficiary. Related issues such as anti-dissipation interdicts and attachments in the documentary-credit context are also dealt with. These questions are likewise investigated from a civilian, common-law and South African perspective. This investigation leads to the conclusion that the South African law is essentially in harmony with the law elsewhere and that our courts have been successful to date in protecting the integrity of documentary credits. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die dokumentêre kredietbrief is een van die belangrikste betalingsmetodes wat in die internasionale handel aangewend word. Hierdie buigbare middel kan 'n verskeidenheid van vorms aanneem. In sy eenvoudigste vorm is dit 'n onderneming deur 'n bank wat op aansoek van 'n koper-invoerder (die bank se kliënt) aan die verkoper-uitvoerder (die begunstigde) gegee word. Dit het twee essensiele eienskappe: (i) die onderneming van die bank om die begunstigde te betaal is onafhanklik van die koopkontrak sowel as die kontrak tussen die bank en sy klient; en (ii) die bank sal slegs betaal teen lewering van die presiese dokumente vereis in die kredietbrief. In Hoofstuk Een word die verskillende verhoudinge tussen die partye betrokke teen hierdie agtergrond bespreek asook die verskillende tipes kredietbriewe. Dokumentere kredietbriewe is relatief gesproke moderne instrumente. Moontlike historiese oorspronge word kortliks in Hoofstuk Twee verken. Kredietbriewe word bykans sonder uitsondering aangevra en uitgereik onderworpe aan die Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (die UCP). Die UCP is 'n stel reels wat deur die Internasionale Kamer van Koophandel opgestel is. Die moderne geskiedenis van kredietbriewe soos in die ontwikkeling van die UCP weerspieel, is die hoofonderwerp van Hoofstuk Drie. In Hoofstuk Vier word die regsaard van die UCP vanuit die perspektief van die regstelsels baseer op die ius civile, die common-law stelsels en die Suid-Afrikaanse reg beskou. In Hoofstuk Vyf word op die regsaard van die verhouding tussen die bank en die begunstigde gefokus. Die aangeleentheid word benader vanuit 'n ius civile (veral Duitse en Nederlandse) perspektief, 'n common-law (veral Engelse en Amerikaanse) perspektief, asook 'n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief. Besondere aandag word verleen aan die vermoe (of onvermoe) van die tradisionele kontraktereg in die verskillende jurisdiksies om 'n teoretiese grondslag daar te stel vir: (i) die onafhanklikheid van die bank se verpligting; en (ii) die onherroepbaarheid van die bank se betalingsonderneming. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking geraak dat die Suid-Afrikaanse kontraktereg wel in staat is om 'n bevredigende basis vir die verhouding in die algemeen, en hierdie twee aangeleenthede in die besonder, daar te stel. In die laaste hoofstuk word aandag geskenk aan die verwere wat 'n bank teenoor die begunstigde se aanspraak kan opper, asook aan die moontlikheid dat die bank by wyse van interdik belet kan word om die begunstigde te betaal. Verwante aangeleenthede soos interdikte in securitatem debiti en beslagleggings in die konteks van kredietbriewe word ook bygehaal. Hierdie aangeleenthede word eweneens vanuit 'n ius civile, common-law, en Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief benader. Die ondersoek lei tot die gevolgtrekking dat die Suid-Afrikaanse reg breedweg beskou in harmonie is met ander stelsels en dat ons howe die integriteit van kredietbriewe tot dusver suksesvol beskerm het. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch en_ZA
dc.rights University of Stellenbosch
dc.subject Credit en_ZA
dc.subject Payment en_ZA
dc.subject Trade en_ZA
dc.subject Bank en_ZA
dc.subject Application en_ZA
dc.subject Client en_ZA
dc.subject Beneficiary en_ZA
dc.subject Documents en_ZA
dc.subject.lcsh Documentary credit en_ZA
dc.subject.lcsh Documentary credit -- South Africa en_ZA
dc.title The law relating to documentary credits from a South African perspective with special reference to the legal position of the issuing and confirming banks en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA


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