Matrix manipulation to study ECC behaviour

Song, Gao (2005-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Civil Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2005.

192 leaves on CD format, preliminary i-xii pages and numbered pages 1-135. Includes bibliography, list of figures and tables.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: As a fibre reinforced material, engineered cementitious composite (ECC) has tough, strain-hardening behaviour in tension despite containing low volumes of fibres. This property can be brought about by developments in fibre, matrix and interfacial properties. Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibre has been developed in recent years for ECC, due to its high tensile strength and elasticity modulus. However, the strong interfacial bond between fibre surface and matrix is a challenge for its application. This study focuses on the tailoring of matrix and fibre/matrix interfacial properties by cement replacement with fly ash (FA) and Ground Granulated Corex Slagment (GGCS). In this study the direct tensile test, three point bending test, micro-scale analysis, such as X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry analysis (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), are employed to investigate the influence of cement replacement, aging, Water/Binder (W/B) ratio, workability on ECC behaviour. This study has successfully achieved the aim that cement replacement by FA and GGCS helps to improve the fibre/matrix interfacial properties and therefore enhances the ECC tensile behaviour. Specifically, a high volume FA-ECC has stable high tensile strain capacity at the age of 21 days. This enables a constant matrix design for the investigation of other matrix influences. The Slag-ECC has a higher tensile strength but lower tensile strain capacity. The combination of FA and GGCS, moderate tensile strength and strain capacity is achieved Both tensile tests and Micro-scale analyses infer that the high volume FA-ECC has an adhesive type fibre/matrix interfacial interaction, as opposed to the cohesive type of normal PVA fibre-ECC. The different tensile behaviour trend of steel fibre-ECC and PVA fibre-ECC with the FA content is presented and discussed in this research. The investigations of aging influence indicate that the high volume FA-ECC has a beneficial effect on the properties of the composite at an early stage. However, at a high age, it has some difficulty to undergo multiple cracking and then leads to the reduction of tensile strain capacity. The modified mix design is made with the combination of FA and GGCS, which successfully increases the interfacial bond and, thereby, improves the shear transfer to reach the matrix crack strength. Therefore, an improved high age tensile behaviour is achieved. The W/B and fresh state workability influence investigations show that the W/B can hardly affect the tensile strain at early age. However, the workability influences on composite tensile strain significantly, because of the influence on fibre dispersion. Other investigations with regard to the hybrid fibre influences, the comparison of bending behaviours between extruded plate and cast plate, the relation between bending MOR and tensile stress, and the relation between compression strength and tensile strength contribute to understand ECC behaviour.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: As ‘n veselversterkte materiaal, het ontwerpte sementbasis saamgestelde materiale, taai vervormingsverhardingseienskappe in trek, ten spyte van lae veselinhoud. Hierdie eienskap word bewerkstellig, deur ontwikkelings in vesel, matriks en tussenveselbindingseienskappe. Poli-Viniel Alkohol (PVA) vesels is ontwikkel vir ECC, as gevolg van die hoë trekkrag en hoë modulus van hierdie veseltipe. Die sterk binding tussen die PVA-veseloppervlak en die matriks is egter ‘n uitdaging vir sy toepassing. Hierdie studie fokus op die skep van gunstige matriks en vesel/matriks tussenvesel-bindingseienskappe deur sement te vervang met vlieg-as (FA) en slagment (GGCS).In hierdie navorsing is direkte trek-toetse, drie-punt-buigtoetse, mikro-skaal analise (soos die X-straal ‘Fluorescence Spectrometry’ analise (XRF) en Skanderende Elektron Mikroskoop (SEM))toegepas. Hierdie metodes is gebruik om die invloed van sementvervanging,veroudering, water/binder (W/B)-verhouding en werkbaarheid op die meganiese gedrag van ECC te ondersoek.Die resultate van hierdie navorsing toon dat sementvervanging deur FA en GGCS help om die vesel/matriks tussenveselbindingseienskappe te verbeter. Dus is die ECC-trekgedrag ook verbeter. Veral ‘n hoë volume FA-ECC het stabiele hoë trekvervormingskapasiteit op ‘n ouderdom van 21 dae. Dit bewerkstellig ‘n konstante matriksontwerp vir die navorsing van ander matriks invloede. Die Slag-ECC het ‘n hoër treksterkte, maar laer trekvervormingskapasiteit. Deur die kombinasie van FA en GGCS word hoë treksterkte, sowel as gematigde vervormbaarheid in trek verkry. Beide trektoetse en mikro-skaal analise dui aan dat die hoë volume FA-ECC ‘n adhesie-tipe vesel/matriks tussenvesel-bindingsinteraksie het, teenoor die ‘kohesie-tipe van normale PVA vesel-ECC. Die verskille in trekgedrag van staalvesel-ECC en PVA vesel-ECC ten opsigte van die FA-inhoud is ondersoek en word bespreek in die navorsing. Die navorsing toon verder dat die hoë volume FA-ECC goeie meganiese eienskappe het op ‘n vroeë ouderdom. Op hoër ouderdom word minder krake gevorm, wat ‘n verlaging in die trekvervormingskapasiteit tot gevolg het. Met die kombinasie van FA en GGCS, word die vesel-matriksverband verhoog, waardeur ‘n verbetering in die skuifoordrag tussen vesel en matriks plaasvind. Verbeterde hoë omeganiese gedrag word daardeur tot stand gebring. Navorsing ten opsigte van die invoed van die W/B en werkbaarheid dui daarop dat die W/B slegs geringe invloed het op die trekvormbaarheid, terwyl die werkbaarheid ‘n dominerende rol speel in hierdie verband.Verdere studies sluit in die invloed van verskillende vesels, die vergelyking van die buigingsgedrag van geëkstueerde plate en gegote plate, die verhouding tussen buigsterkte en treksterkte, en die verhouding tussen druksterkte en treksterkte dra by tot beter begrip van die gedrag van ECC.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4647
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