Development of a minimally invasive robotic surgical manipulator

Christiane, Peter-John (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2009-03)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Minimal invasive surgery (MIS) enables surgeons to operate through a few small incisions made in the patient’s body. Through these incisions, long rigid instruments are inserted into the body and manipulated to perform the necessary surgical tasks. Conventional instruments, however, are constrained by having only five degrees of freedom (DOF), as well as having scaled and mirrored movements, thereby limiting the surgeon’s dexterity. Surgeons are also deprived of depth perception and hand-eye coordination due to only having two-dimensional visual feedback. Surgical robotics attempt to alleviate these drawbacks by increasing dexterity, eliminating the fulcrum effect and providing the surgeon with three-dimensional visualisation. This reduces the risks to the patient as well as to the surgeon. However, existing MIS systems are extremely expensive and bulky in operating rooms, preventing their more widespread adoption. In this thesis, a new, inexpensive seven-DOF primary slave manipulator (PSM) is presented. The four-DOF wrist is actuated through a tendon mechanism driven by five 12 VDC motors. A repeatability study on the wrist’s joint position was done and showed a standard deviation of 0.38 degrees. A strength test was also done and demonstrated that the manipulator is able to resist a 10 N opposing tip force and is capable of a theoretical gripping force of 15 N.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Minimale indringende chirurgie (MIC) maak dit vir chirurge moontlik om operasies uit te voer deur ’n paar klein insnydings wat op die pasiënt se liggaam gemaak word. Deur hierdie insnydings word lang onbuigsame instrumente in die liggaam ingesit en gemanipuleer om die nodige chirurgiese take uit te voer. Konvensionele instrumente is egter beperk vanweë die feit dat hulle net vyf vryheidsgrade het, asook afgeskaalde bewegings en spieëlbewegings, en gevolglik die chirurg se handvaardigheid beperk. Chirurge word ook ontneem van dieptewaarneming en hand-oog-koördinasie, want hulle is beperk tot tweedimensionele visuele terugvoer. Chirurgiese robotika poog om hierdie nadele aan te spreek deur handvaardigheid te vermeerder, die hefboomeffek uit te skakel en die chirurg driedimensionele visualisering te bied. Dit verminder die risiko’s vir die pasiënt én vir die chirurg. Bestaande MIC-stelsels is egter uiters duur en neem baie plek op in teaters, wat verhoed dat hulle op ’n groter skaal gebruik word. In hierdie tesis word ’n nuwe, goedkoop sewevryheidsgrade- primêre slaafmanipuleerder (PSM) voorgelê. Die viervryheidsgrade-pols word beweeg deur ’n tendonmeganisme wat aangedryf word deur vyf 12 VDC-motors. ’n Herhaalbaarheidstudie is op die pols se gewrigsposisie gedoen, wat ’n standaardafwyking van 0.38 grade aangetoon het. ’n Sterktetoets is ook gedoen en het gewys dat die manipuleerder in staat is om ’n 10 N-teenkantelkrag te weerstaan en dat dit oor ’n teoretiese greepsterkte van 15 N beskik.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4497
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