Die rol van gender in die huwelik as sosiale instelling : persepsies van blanke Afrikanerstudente

Freysen, Rouxle (2010-03)

Thesis (MPhil (Political Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die vraag wat in hierdie tesis aangespreek word, is hoe genderrolle in die samelewing geskep word. Die rol van die huwelik as sosiale instelling word in diepte bespreek en die funksionaliteit van die instelling word bevraagteken. Genderrolle in die samelewing word deur sosialiseringsagente gekonstrueer. Die sosialiseringsagente sal in hierdie tesis onder die loep geneem word en van nader beskou word. Die studie wou die tendens navors dat die samelewing tans as meer liberaal en nie-tradisioneel gesien word. Dit wil egter voorkom of hierdie skuif nie werklik in alle instellings plaasgevind het nie. Tradisionele waardes blyk steeds onderliggend aan sommige instellings in die samelewing te wees en ten grondslag te lê aan talle instellings. Die data vir hierdie studie is deur middel van kwantitatiewe asook kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetodes verkry. Fokusgroepe is gebruik aangesien dit as die basis vir die vraelys en navorsing sou dien. Die vraelys sou dien om óf navorsing wat reeds bestaan te bevraagteken, óf om navorsing te bevestig. Vraelyste is of deur middel van ʼn ontmoeting aan respondente oorhandig of aan respondente wat deur middel van die ‘sneeubal’ effek verkry is, ge-e-pos. Die kriteria wat gebruik is vir die proefgroep was blanke Afrikaanssprekende Christelike studente aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Hierdie spesifieke groep is gekies aangesien hulle steeds as tradisioneel gesien kan word in teenstelling met studente wat in die algemeen as liberaal en vrydenkend gestereotipeer word. Die botsing van waardes is veral met die fokus op godsdiens ondersoek, en die impak van godsdiens op die huwelik is bestudeer. Die voltooide vraelyste is statisties verwerk deur gebruik te maak van STASTISTICA, ʼn elektroniese data-verwerkingsprogram. In hierdie tesis het sewe breë temas uit die vraelyste na vore gekom. Eerstens word die huwelik en die nukleêre gesin as belangrike asook noodsaaklike instellings in die samelewing gesien. Tweedens, word genderrolle in die samelewing gekonstrueer. Derdens, is geloof fundamenteel in die huwelik. Vierdens is die rol van die vrou in die huwelik om haar man te ondersteun. Die volgende tema wat beskou word, is dat Afrikaners as kultuurgroep steeds konserwatief is ten opsigte van hul keuse van ’n huweliksmaat, en dat hulle verkies om slegs vanuit hul kultuurgroep ’n huweliksmaat te kies. Sesdens beïnvloed die massamedia as sosialiseringsagent nie werklik persepsies van die huwelik nie, maar eerder seksualiteit. Laastens is ouers as sosialiseringsagente veral belangrik in terme van die rol van die vrou in ii die huwelik. Daar is slegs ten opsigte van persepsies oor seksualiteit, die huwelik asook die Afrikaner as kultuurgroep, ʼn beduidende statistiese verskil tussen manlike en vroulike respondente gevind. Uit die studie blyk dit dus dat genderrolle sosiaal deur die samelewing gekonstrueer word en dat sekere sosialiseringsagente die raamwerk bied waarin persepsies oor gender gevorm word. Die huwelik blyk steeds ʼn instelling te wees wat ʼn belangrike rol in die samelewing vervul. Die verdeling van arbeid in die huwelik blyk problematies te wees aangesien die toetrede van vroue tot die arbeidsmark, die nukleêre gesin beïnvloed en verander het. Uit die data wil dit voorkom asof ’n kontras bestaan tussen die nie-tradisonele waardes van die moderne samelewing en tradisionele idees wat steeds deur godsdiens ondersteun word.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The question addressed in this thesis is how gender roles in society are created and established. The role and function of marriage as a social institution is also discussed. Gender roles in society are socially constructed, and the socialisation agents responsible for this construction of values and norms are evaluated. The question, however, was derived from values in society that seem to adjust to more liberal and non-traditional ideas, especially regarding marriage and gender roles. However, even if perceptions are favourable toward a less traditional society, traditional ideas seem to form the basis of many social institutions. The research was conducted in both a quantitative and a qualitative manner. The reason for this is that each method fills a specific gap within research. Focus groups acted as the basis for the questionnaire and further research. The questionnaire acted as a method to either find support for or contradict existing research. Questionnaires were distributed in meetings with respondents, and respondents that emerged from the snowball method, were contacted via email. The sample consisted of white Afrikaans-speaking Christian students on Stellenbosch University campus who were chosen because of perceptions that students in general are liberal but Afrikaners as a cultural group are fairly traditional. The conflict between this group’s norms and perceptions about students in general was researched. The completed questionnaires were statistically analysed by using an electronic data analysis programme, STATISTICA. Seven broad themes emerged as the main findings in this thesis. First, marriage and the role of the nuclear family in society is a much needed social institution. Second, it became clear that gender in society is a socially constructed concept. Third, it became apparent that religion plays a major role as socialisation agent and fulfils a fundamental role within society. Fourth, the role of women in marriage was clearly seen as that of the supportive wife. Another theme indicated that that was investigated was that Afrikaners as a cultural group are still very traditional and conservative, especially with regards to whom they marry. It seems like Afrikaners still choose marriage partners from within their own cultural group. Sixth, the mass media also seem to be socialisation agents especially with regards to sexuality. Finally, parents as socialisation agents play a big role in forming perceptions, especially with regards to the role of women in society. The study also indicated that there were statistical differences between male and female respondents, but only with regards to sexuality, marriage and the Afrikaner as a cultural group. From the study one could thus argue that gender roles are socially constructed and that socialising agents provides the framework for perceptions with regards to gender. The role of marriage in society still seems very important. The division of labour in marriage seems problematic due to women’s increasing participation in the labour market. It influences the nuclear family on many levels. There appears to be a contradiction between modern society’s non-traditional values and the more traditional values regarding marriage and gender roles still supported by religion.

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