The edaphic and climatic effects on production and wine quality of Cabernet Sauvignon in the Lower Olifants River region

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dc.contributor.advisor Myburgh, P. A.
dc.contributor.advisor Deloire, A. Bruwer, Rachel Jacoba
dc.contributor.other University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology. 2010-02-24T11:28:27Z en_ZA 2010-08-13T15:01:50Z 2010-02-24T11:28:27Z en_ZA 2010-08-13T15:01:50Z 2010-03
dc.description Thesis (MScAgric (Viticulture and Oenology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cabernet Sauvignon is the most planted red cultivar in South Africa and the second most planted red cultivar in the Olifants River region. The cultivar is prone to vigorous growth with low yields. Excessive irrigation could accentuate these cultivar characteristics. Considering the foregoing, the aim of the study was to describe how Cabernet Sauvignon will react to climate, soil type (texture) and irrigation within the Lower Olifants River wine region to enable growers to make the right decisions regarding long term as well as short term cultivation practices. This study is part of a project carried out by the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij at Stellenbosch to determine the effects of soil type and atmospheric conditions on yield and wine quality of Cabernet Sauvignon in different grape growing regions of South Africa. Similar studies are being carried out in the Orange River, Stellenbosch and Swartland regions of South Africa. The Lower Olifants River region could be divided into three climatic regions. Furthermore, two climatic regions is evident regarding the formation of grape wine colour and aromas. Proximity to the Atlantic Ocean would play an important role in a cultivar establishment policy. The variation in stem water potential (ΨS) could be related to soil water status expressed in terms of matric potential (ΨM). In the case of sandy soils, ΨS decreased substantially more as the ΨM decreased compared to the sandy loam soils. The reason could be that the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in sandy soils decreased more rapidly as the ΨM decreased compared to the heavier soils. Thus could explain why the grapevines in the sandy soils experienced more water stress than the ones in the sandy loam soils at a given ΨM. Climate had a strong influence on grapevine water status with grapevines nearer to the ocean experiencing less water stress compared to the ones further inland. This was especially true for grapevines in the sandy soils. Vegetative growth and yield of grapevines in the sandy soils were more sensitive to water deficits compared to the ones in the sandy loam soils. For deficit irrigated grapevines in the sandy soils, vegetative growth and yield decreased by ca. 30% when ca. 55% less water was applied from flowering to harvest. Yield reduction were ca. 15% with no or very little influence on vegetative growth with ca. 80% reduction in water applied from flowering to harvest for grapevines in the sandy loam soils. The influence of soil texture on wine quality and style were evident under intensive irrigation as well as over different climatic regions. Overall sensorial potential wine quality of grapevines in sandy soils tended to be higher compared to the ones in the sandy loam soils. Deficit irrigation tended to increase wine colour intensity, irrespective of soil texture. Furthermore, deficit irrigation in sandy loam soils tended to increase wine fullness and the berry characteristics of the wine. Berry characteristics of wines from the sandy soils tended to be higher compared to the ones from the sandy loam soils. Too severe water deficits in sandy soils could be detrimental to wine quality. Climate tended to have an influence on wine style of grapevines in the sandy soils with wines produced further away from the ocean tended to have higher berry characteristics. Irrigation management could be a powerful tool to manipulate the grapevine in sandy soils. For grapevines the sandy loam soils in addition to regulated deficit irrigation, additional canopy management practices could be needed to improve wine quality. en
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Cabernet Sauvignon is die mees aangeplante rooidruif kultivar in die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf. In die Olifantsriver streek is dit naas Shiraz, die tweede mees aangeplante rooidruif kultivar. Cabernet Sauvignon is bekend as ‘n groeikragtige skaamdraer. Indien oorbesproei word, kan hierdie potensiële nadelige eienskappe nog meer na vore tree. Die doel van die studie is om die invloed van die klimaat, grond en besproeiing op Cabernet Sauvignon se vegetatiewe groei, produksie en wyngehalte in die Benede Olifantsrivier streek te bepaal. Hierdie inligting kan produsente help om ingeligte kortsowel as langtermyn besluite te maak rakende die verbouing van Cabernet Sauvignon. Hierdie studie vorm deel van ‘n breër studie in die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf, gedryf deur die Landbou Navorsingsraad (LNR) Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch om die invloed van atmosferiese toestande en grond op die produksie en wyngehalte van Cabernet Sauvignon te bepaal. Soortgelyke projekte word uitgevoer in die Oranjerivier, Stellenbosch en Swartland wynstreke. Die Benede Olifantsrivier streek kan verdeel word in drie klimaatstreke op grond van temperatuurdata. In terme van die ontwikkeling van druifkleur en aromas, kan die streek verdeel word in twee klimaatstreke. Die afstand vanaf die Atlantiese Oseaan kan ‘n belangrike rol speel in die ontwikkeling van ‘n kultivarriglynplan vir die streek. Grondwaterstatus, uitgedruk as die matrikspotensiaal (ΨM), kan aanleiding gee tot variasie in middag blaarwaterpotensiaal (ΨS) lesings. Die ΨS van die sand gronde verlaag vinniger soos die ΨM verlaag invergelyke met die sandleem gronde. Dit kan moontlik wees as gevolg van die verskil in die grond onversadigde hidroliese konduktiwiteit. Sand gronde se hidroliese konduktiwiteit verlaag vinniger soos die ΨM verlaag, invergelyke met sandleem gronde. Dit verklaar waarom wingerde in sand gronde by dieselfde ΨM, meer waterspanning ondervind as wingerde in sandleem gronde. Klimaat het ‘n invloed op die waterstatus van die wingerdstok. Wingerde nader aan die see het minder waterspanning ondervind invergelyke met wingerde wat verder in die binneland geleë is. Dit was veral die geval met wingerde in die sand gronde. Vegetatiewe groei en produksie van wingerde in die sand gronde is meer sensitief vir waterspanning as wingerde in die sandleem gronde. Tekortbesproeiing in die sand gronde het die groei asook produksie met ongeveer 30% verlaag deur ongeveer 55% minder water toe te dien vanaf blom tot oes. In teenstelling daarmee is die produksie van wingerde in die sandleem gronde met ongeveer 15% verlaag met geen tot baie min verlaging in die groeikrag. Ongeveer 80% minder water is toegedien vanaf blom tot oes. Grondtekstuur kan wyngehalte en -styl beïnvloed ten spyte van intensiewe besproeiing en klimaatsverskille. Sensoriese potensiële wyngehalte van wingerde in die sand gronde was beter invergelyke met dié van die sandleem gronde. Die wyne vanaf die sand gronde het ook geneig om oor meer bessie intensiteit te beskik as wyne vanaf die sandleem gronde. Tekortbesproeiing neig om die wynkleur intensiteit te verhoog, ongeag van grondtekstuur. Tekortbesproeiing in die sandleem gronde kan ook die volheid van die wyne verbeter, asook die bessie intensiteit van die wyn verhoog. Te hoë waterspanning in die sand gronde kan wyngehalte nadelig beïnvloed. Klimaat kan ook die wynstyl vanaf sand gronde beïnvloed met wyne verder vanaf die see wat oor meer bessie intensiteit beskik as wyne nader aan die see. Beheerde tekortbesproeiing kan as ‘n kragtige hulpmiddel gebruik word om wingerde in die sand gronde te manipuleer. Vir wingerde in die sandleem gronde, addisioneel tot beheerde tekortbesproeiing en normale loofbestuurspraktyke, kan ekstra loofbestuurspraktyke bv. die verwydering van sylootlote, dalk nodig wees om wyngehalte te verbeter. af
dc.format.extent 208 p. : ill.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch
dc.subject Grapevines -- Water status en
dc.subject Grapes -- Growth en
dc.subject Grapes -- Yields en
dc.subject Dissertations -- Viticulture and oenology en
dc.subject Theses -- Viticulture and oenology en
dc.subject Dissertations -- Agriculture en
dc.subject Theses -- Agriculture en
dc.subject Vineyards -- Soils en
dc.subject Grapes -- Effect of climate on en
dc.subject Wine and wine making en
dc.subject Wine -- Quality en
dc.title The edaphic and climatic effects on production and wine quality of Cabernet Sauvignon in the Lower Olifants River region en
dc.type Thesis
dc.rights.holder University of Stellenbosch
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