Influence of values on the attitude towards cultural diversity

Becker, Jurgen Reiner (2010-03)

Thesis (MComm (Industrial Psychology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although fifteen years have passed since the change in political dispensation in South Africa, the integration of citizens belonging to the previously disadvantaged sections of society is still progressing at a bewilderingly slow pace. Gaining access to the world of work is instrumental in the alleviation of poverty and the promotion of economic and social stability in a country still plagued by the legacy of apartheid. While South Africa is currently in the process of breaking down the scaffolding of apartheid and promoting the welfare of all South Africans along more equitably lines, the overall success of relevant initiatives fundamentally hinges on both the former oppressors and the formerly oppressed coming to terms with the past and, more importantly, engaging in a process of constitutional reconciliation and compromise to overcome unconstructive attitudes brought about through decades of colonialism, racism and segregation. Following from this, attitudes towards cultural diversity in general and, more specifically, the forces (i.e. nomological network of antecedents) that shape such attitudes, informed the research question that initiated the current study. Preliminary theorising culminated in the formulation of a tentative theoretical model explicating the relationship between various variables and the attitude towards cultural diversity. The proposed theoretical model in an effort to answer the question that initiated the research implied that values influence the attitude towards cultural diversity. Furthermore, it was argued that the relationship between values and the attitude towards cultural diversity is moderated by race and gender. The proposed theoretical model was formally assessed with the use of a convenience sample of 1 357 students from four prominent universities in South Africa (Northwest University, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, University of Stellenbosch, and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University). A quasi double cross-validation procedure was utilised whereby a single sample was divided into two equal subsamples: (a) a calibration sample and (b) validation sample. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research paradigms was utilised in the current study. Only quantitative results are reported formally, although the qualitative technique of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was utilised extensively during the stages of theorisation. The statistical analysis became naturally segmented in four distinct sections: the validation of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and the Cultural Diversity Belief Scales (CDBS); the refinement of the SVS and CDBS; testing of the proposed theoretical model via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM); and testing the moderating effects of race and gender on the attitude towards cultural diversity by means of moderated regression analysis. Partial support was found for the proposed linkages between values main effects and the attitude towards cultural diversity, as well as for the moderating effects of race and gender on the value-attitude linkages. Conclusions were drawn from the results obtained and recommendations for future research have been made.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Alhoewel die politieke bewind in Suid-Afrika reeds vyftien jaar gelede verander het, vorder die integrasie binne die samelewing van die voorheen benadeelde gedeeltes van die bevolking teen ‘n verstommend stadige pas. Die verkryging van toetrede tot die wêreld van werk dra by tot die verligting van armoede en die bevordering van ekonomiese en maatskaplike stabiliteit in ‘n land wat steeds deur die nalatenskap van apartheid geteister word. Met Suid-Afrika tans betrokke by die aftakeling van die apartheidsteierwerk en die bevordering van die welsyn van alle Suid-Afrikaners op meer gelyke grondslag, rus die algehele sukses van relevante inisiatiewe daarop dat die voormalige verdruktes en die voormalige verdrukkers met die verlede vrede maak, maar ook meer dat hulle deur ’n proses van grondwetlike versoening en akkoord die onopbouende houdings wat deur dekades van kolonialisme, rassisme en segregasie tot stand gekom het, kan oorkom. Vanuit hierdie agtergrond het houdings teenoor kulturele diversiteit in die algemeen en, meer spesifiek, die magte (d.i. nomologiese netwerk van voorafgaande gebeure) wat aan sulke houdings vorm gee, die navorsingsvraag laat ontstaan wat tot die huidige studie gelei het. Die voorafgaande teorie-ontwikkeling het tot die formulering van ‘n tentatiewe teoretiese model gelei om die verhouding tussen verskeie veranderlikes en die houding teenoor kulturele diversiteit te ontvou. In ‘n poging om ‘n antwoord te vind vir die vraag wat tot die navorsing gelei het, het die voorgestelde teoretiese model geïmpliseer dat waardes die houding teenoor kulturele diversiteit beïnvloed. ‘n Verdere argument was dat die verband tussen waardes en die houding teenoor kulturele diversiteit deur ras en geslag gemodereer word. Die voorgestelde teoretiese model is formeel geassesseer met gebruik van ’n gerieflikheidssteekproef bestaande uit 1 357 studente vanuit vooraanstaande universiteite in Suid-Afrika (die Universiteit van die Noordweste, die Kaapse Skiereiland Universiteit van Tegnologie, die Universiteit van Stellenbosch en die Nelson Mandela Metropolitaanse Universiteit).’n Kwasi dubbele kruis-validering (quasi double cross-validation) prosedure is gebruik waardeur ‘n enkelvoudige steekproefneming in twee gelyke steekproewe verdeel is: (a) ‘n kalibreringssteekproef en (b) ‘n valideringsteekproef. ’n Kombinasie van kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe navorsingsparadigmas is in die huidige studie gebruik. Slegs kwantitatiewe resultate word formeel gerapporteer, alhoewel kwalitatiewe Kritiese Diskoers-analise (Critical Discourse Analysis) omvattend gebruik is gedurende die teoretiseringstadia. Die statistiese ontledings het op natuurlike wyse in vier duidelike afdelings verdeel: die validering van die Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) en die Cultural Diversity Belief Scales (CDBS); die verfyning van die SVS en die CDBS; die toets van die voorgestelde teoretiese model met behulp van Structural Equation Modelling (SEM); en die toets van die modererende effekte van ras en geslag op die houding teenoor kulturele diversiteit deur middel van modererende regressie-analise. Gedeeltelike ondersteuning is gevind vir die voorgestelde verband tussen hoof-effekte van waardes en die houding teenoor diversiteit, sowel as vir die modererende effek van ras en geslag op die waardes-houdings verband. Gevolgtrekkings is gemaak uit die resultate wat verkry is en voorstelle in verband met toekomstige navorsing is aan die hand gedoen.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4298
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