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dc.contributor.advisorTerblanche, Elmarie
dc.contributor.authorKoekemoer, Christa Magrietaen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherUniversity of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Education. Dept. of Sport Science.
dc.date.accessioned2010-02-25T13:44:34Zen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2010-08-13T15:00:58Z
dc.date.available2010-02-25T13:44:34Zen_ZA
dc.date.available2010-08-13T15:00:58Z
dc.date.issued2010-02-25T13:44:34Zen_ZA
dc.date.issued2010-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4275
dc.descriptionThesis (M Sport Sc (Sport Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Post-exercise recovery has become an important area in research due to the high demands placed on competitive athletes. Different recovery strategies are used by athletes during competition and training. For the competitive athlete it is important to maintain performances during competition and also to enhance performances during training. However, if the athlete fails to recovery from daily exhaustive training and competition, inadequate recovery may lead to poor performances, burn-out, sickness and even injuries. There is very little evidence available on the possible performance recovery effects of the use of water immersion during multi days of intensive endurance training. Theoretically, water immersion should aid the overall recovery process without any additional energy cost involved as with active recovery. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether water immersion (cold water vs. neutral) has any effects on the post-exercise recovery rate of competitive cyclists during 3 days of intensive endurance training and whether recovery with water immersion is more effective than active recovery. Seventeen competitive cyclists (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 5.94 years, weight: 78.8 ± 6.67 kg, height: 180.5 ± 4.42 cm VO2max: 49.8 ± 4.13 L.min-1.kg-1, and PPO: 352.6 ± 35.94 Watts) completed 3 days of intensive endurance cycling sessions. Cyclists were randomly assigned to either a 20 minute ice bath (IB) (n = 6, 11 ± 0.9oC), neutral bath (NB) (n = 6, 30 ± 0.6oC), or active recovery (AR) (n = 5; 81 ± 1.74% of HRLT ) which were performed directly after the training sessions on Day 1 and 2. Dependent variables such as anaerobic performance, creatine kinase concentrations (CK), c-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), blood lactate concentrations, muscle soreness (VAS) and perceived fatigue (POMS), and limb circumferences were measured prior to the training sessions at Day 1, 2 and 3. In addition, changes in exercise performances over the last 2 days were also assessed. There were significant increases over the three days in plasma [CK] (P < 0.05) and [CRP] (P < 0.001) demonstrating that muscle damage and inflammation occurred during and after the training sessions. However, there were no treatment or interaction effects observed for any of the dependent variables for any of the recovery interventions (P > 0.05). Blood [La] was significantly reduced on Day 2 for the IB group in comparison to the NB group (P < 0.05). A strong tendency was observed for [CK] when the IB and NB groups were combined (WG), indicating that AR had a strong tendency to enhance the recovery of [CK] in comparison to the WG (P = 0.05). Also, there were no significant time or interaction effects observed in % changes in performances for the last two 100km TTs between Day 2 and 3 for any of the recovery interventions (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that neither cold water, nor neutral water therapy, have more beneficial effects on post-exercise recovery rates compared to active recovery. Importantly, however, is that the cyclists’ were able to maintain their performances over the three consecutive days, indicating that water therapy per se is not detrimental to endurance performance.en
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Na-oefening herstel het ‘n belangrike area van navorsing geword, aangesien die eise wat aan elite atlete gestel word buitengewoon hoog is. Vir die kompeterende fietsryer is dit baie belangrik om prestasie tydens kompetitisie asook tydens inoefening te handhaaf. Inteendeel, as die atleet nie daarin slaag om effektief te herstel na daaglikse oefening en kompetisie nie, mag dit lei tot swak prestasie, uitbranding, siekte en beserings. Tot hede is daar geen baie min bewyse beskikbaar oor die potensiële voordele van waterterapie vir die herstel van atlete, veral tydens meervoudige dae van intensiewe uithouvermoë inoefening. Teoreties behoort waterterapie die algehele herstelproses bevorder sonder dat enige addisionele energiekostes betrokke is, soos in die geval van aktiewe herstel. Die doel van die ondersoek was om vas te stel of waterterapie (koud teenoor neutraal) enige effekte het op die na-oefening hersteltempo van kompeterende fietsryers tydens 3 dae van intensiewe uithouvermo oefening en om te bepaal of waterterapie meer effektief is as aktiewe herstel. Sewentien kompeterende fietsryers (gemiddeld ± SD; ouderdom: 27.6 ± 5.94 jaar, gewig: 78.8 ± 6.67 kg, lengte: 180.5 ± 4.42 cm, VO2maks: 49.8 ± 4.13 L.min-1.kg-1, en Piek krag uitset: 352.6 ± 35.94 Watts) het 3 dae van intensiewe uithouvermoë inoefeing voltooi. Die fietryers was lukraak ingedeel in ‘n 20 minute Ysbadgroep (IB) (n = 6, 11 ± 0.9oC), neutrale bad groep (NB) (n = 6, 30 ± 0.6oC) en ‘n aktiewe herstelgroep (AR) (n = 5; 81 ± 1.74% van HRLT), Herstelsessies het op Dag 1 en 2 direk na die inoefeningsessies plaasgevind. Afhanklike veranderlikes soos funksionele kapasiteit, kreatienkinase konsentrasies (CK), c-reaktiewe proteïen konsentrasies (CRP), bloedlaktaat konsentrasie ([La]), spierseerheid en persepsie van vermoeienis (STEMS), en beenomtrekke was gemeet voor die inoefeningsessies op Dag 1, 2 en 3. Veranderinge in oefeningprestasie oor die laaste 2 dae was ook geassesseer. Daar was ‘n statistiese betekenisvolle toename in plasma [CK] (P < 0.05) en [CRP] (P < 0.001) oor die drie dae, wat daarop wys dat spierskade en inflammasie wel plaasgevind het. Daar was geen behandeling of interaksie effekte waarneembaar vir enige van die intervensies nie (P > 0.05). Bloed [La] was beduidend verlaag op Dag 2 vir die IB groep in vergelyking met die NB groep (P = 0.05). Die verlaging in plasma [CK] na AR het gegrens aan statisties betekenisvolle resultate (P = 0.05) in vergelyking met die waterterapie (IB en NB gekombineer). Daar was geen statisites beduidende tyd of interaksie effekte waargeneem in die % veranderinge in oefeningprestasie vir die laaste twee 100km tydtoetse tussen Dag 2 en 3 vir enige van die herstelstrategieë nie (P < 0.05) Die resultate wys dat waterterapie nie enige voordelige effekte op die na-inoefening herstel tempo het in vergelyking met aktiewe herstel nie. Dit is egter belangrik om daarop te let dat die fietsryers in staat was om hul oefeningprestasies te handhaaf oor die drie opeenvolgende dae, wat aandui dat waterterapie nie nadelig inwerk op uithouvermoë prestasie nie.af
dc.format.extent130 p.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherStellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch
dc.subjectDissertations -- Sport scienceen
dc.subjectTheses -- Sport scienceen
dc.subjectPost exercise ecoveryen
dc.subjectWater immersionen
dc.subjectPerformanceen
dc.subjectCyclistsen
dc.titleThe effects of water immersion on the recovery and performance of competitive cyclistsen_ZA
dc.typeThesis
dc.rights.holderUniversity of Stellenbosch


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