Geology and emplacement controls of the Stinkbank granite in the south Central Zone of the Pan-African Damara Belt, Namibia

Vietze, Martin Ernst (2010-03)

Thesis (MSc (Earth Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: Regional mapping of the Stinkbank granite in the south Central Zone of the Damara Belt, focused on an area of ca. 150 km2 in the SW parts of the granite along well exposed sections of the Khan River to the SW of the town of Usakos. The granite forms part of the regionally widespread granite suite of Salem-type granites that intruded at ca. 550-540 Ma into amphibolite-facies rocks of the Damara Supergroup. The Stinkbank granite is intrusive into the regional-scale, NE-trending D2 Kransberg syncline, cored by schists of the Kuiseb Formation and surrounded by marble units of the Karibib Formation. The granite comprises three major lithotypes that have intruded in sequence. The earliest granites are represented by biotite-rich megacrystic granites, followed by leucocratic megacrystic granites and a final stage of voluminous, garnetiferous and tourmaline-bearing, medium-grained leucogranites. Contact relationships with the wall rocks are, for the most part, concordant, documenting the largely sheet-like geometry of the granites. Internal contacts between different granite phases are well preserved and indicate that the granites have intruded as shallowly-dipping, largely concordant sheets. Intrusive contact relationships and petrographic and geochemical characteristics indicate that each of the three major granite phases represented a distinct emplacement pulse. Successive emplacement of the granite sheets point to the assembly of the Stinkbank granite from the top down, with younger sheets intruding structurally below earlier emplaced granite sheets. This has created a pseudostratigraphy within the Stinkbank granite. The mapping of the internal contacts shows that the granite sheets were progressively folded into NE-trending, upright folds, parallel to D2 folds in the surrounding wall rocks. NE-trending magmatic and solid-state foliations in all granite phases are axial planar to the folds and underline the syntectonic emplacement of the Stinkbank granite during the D2 NW-SE subhorizontal shortening. Based on the intrusive relationships and the progressive deformation of granite phases, an intrusive sequence can be developed for the Stinkbank granite. The earliest granite phases were emplaced during the onset of the regional D2 deformation, parallel to the subhorizontal bedding. Continued granite sheeting led to the vertical growth of the sheet-like granite and bending of the wall rocks above the inflating granite sheets, leading to the laccolithic geometry of the SW parts iii of the Stinkbank granite. Progressive deformation, folding of the granite sheets and fold amplification resulted in fold interference patterns in the SW parts of the Stinkbank granite. The Stinkbank granite represents a mid-crustal granite with well-preserved granite sheeting that was assembled during regional deformation. Granite sheeting and progressive deformation illustrate the interplay between (1) regional strains, and (2) the orientation and presence of pre-existing wall-rock anisotropies (bedding) and their significance for the magmatic assembly and progressive deformation of the granite.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Regionale kartering van die Stinkbank graniet in die suidelike Sentrale Sone (sSS) van die Damara Gordel. Die studie fokus op die area van ongeveer 150 km2 in die SW dele van die graniet, langs n goed blootgestelde seksie van die Khan Rivier, SW van Usakos. Die graniet vorm deel van n wydverspreide suite van Salem- tipe graniete wat tussen 550-540 Ma in die amfiboliet fasies gesteentes van die Damara Supregroep ingedring het. Die Stinkbank graniet kom voor in regionale –skaal , NE – neigende D2 Kransberg Sinklinorium, wat bestaan uit skis van die Kuiseb Formasie en marmer van die Karibib Formasie. Die graniet bestaan uit drie hoof fases wat in volgorde ingedring het. Die oudste graniet is die biotiet-ryke megakristiese graniet, gevolg deur die leukokratiese megakristiese graniet en laastens die leukograniet. Kontak verhoudings met die wandgesteentes is grootendeels konkordant en dit dui op die feit dat die graniet uit lae bestaan. Die interne kontakte tussen die verskillende graniete is goed preserveer en dui aan dat die graniete voorkom as vlak lêende lae. Kontakverhoudings, petrografie en geochemiese karakteristieke dui aan dat elk van die die drie tiepes graniet uniek is. Die volgorde van intrusie van die Stinkbank graniet het voorgekom van bo na onder. Dit het n “skyn-stratigrafie” tot gevolg gehad. Kartering van die interne kontakte tussen die graniete het getoon dat die graniet lae is deurentyds gevou na NE- neigende, regop voue, parallel aan die D2 voue in die omringende wandegesteentes. NE- neigende magmatiese en soliede stadium foliasies in al die graniete is asvlak planêr aan die voue en dui ook op die syn-tektoniese intrusie van die Stinkbank graniet gedurende die D2 , NW-SE subhorisontale verkorting. Intrusiewe verhoudings en die progressiewe deformasie van die graniet, dui dat n volgorde verkry kan word vir die Stinkbank graniet. Die oudste graniet fase het ingedring gedurende die begin van die streekse D2 deformasie, parallel aan die subhorisontale gelaagdheid. Aanhoudende graniet-lae intrusies het gely tot die groei van n laag-ryke graniet en die buiging van die omliggende wangesteentes om dit n lakoliet vorm te gee in die SW dele van die Stinkbank graniet. Progressiewe deformasie, vouing van graniet lae en vergroting van voue het tot vou-interferensie patrone in die SW dele van die Stinkbank graniet tot gevolg gehad. Die Stinkbank graniet stel n middel- kors graniet met goed gepreserveerde gelaagdheid, wat gedurende regional deformasie ingedring het, voor. Graniet lae en progressiewe deformasie illustreer die verhouding tussen (1) regionale spanning en (2) die orientasie en teenwoordigheid van voorafbestaande wandgesteente anisotropie (gelaagdheid) en hulle belangrikheid vir die opbou en deformasie van die graniet.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4271
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