Advancing full production and increasing yield in young 'Triumph' persimmon orchards

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dc.contributor.advisor Steyn, W. J.
dc.contributor.advisor Theron, K. I.
dc.contributor.author Scheepers, Stephanus Jacobus
dc.contributor.other University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Horticulture.
dc.date.accessioned 2010-02-24T07:31:10Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2010-08-13T15:00:15Z
dc.date.available 2010-02-24T07:31:10Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2010-08-13T15:00:15Z
dc.date.issued 2010-03
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4216
dc.description Thesis (MScAgric (Horticulture))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Persimmon production is new to South Africa with about 700 ha planted to the dioecious, parthenocarpic Triumph cultivar since 1998. Little local expertise is available to assist growers in achieving high yields of high quality fruit and previous research has shown that recipes that are followed in Israel, from where ‘Triumph’ was introduced to South Africa, do not necessarily have any beneficial effect in South Africa. ‘Triumph’ orchards in South Africa are often late in reaching full production. Persimmon trees are generally vigorous and prone to excessive fruit drop, partly due to excessive vegetative growth, especially when young and grown on the very vigorous Diospyros lotus seedling rootstock. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the use of growth retardants and various severities of girdling to increase flower formation, fruit set and yield in vigorous, young ‘Triumph’ orchards. Scoring and girdling improved fruit set and yield in two such orchards and are recommended as tools to improve yield in ‘Triumph’ in South Africa. Strapping, prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) did not increase yield whereas 5 mm bark removal was too severe a treatment and decreased fruit quality in the current season and yield in the following season. None of the treatments had an effect on flower formation or decreased vegetative growth. PBZ, especially as foliar spray, appears to advance fruit maturity. P-Ca at 125 mg L-1 and 250 mg L-1 induced phytotoxicity symptoms and decreased yields in both orchards. However, further research is required before P-Ca and PBZ are completely discarded as treatments to manage vigor in ‘Triumph’ persimmon in South Africa. In contrast to the negative effect of excessive vigor on fruit production, the profitability of orchards is dependent on the rapid growth of trees after planting in order to fill the allotted canopy volume and achieve full production as quickly as possible. Hence, the second objective of this study was to determine optimum levels of irrigation and fertilizer application rates to attain early, high yields in newly planted ‘Triumph’. Fertigation was applied at three levels, viz. ½X, 1X and 2X with 1X being the commercial standard application rate. Irrigation was also applied at these levels without addition of fertilizer. In addition, fertilizer was applied at 0X, ½X and 1X at 1X irrigation level. Tree size increased with an increase in water application rate. Yield also increased linearly with an increase in water application rate due to a linear increase in fruit size. Fertigation and ½X water as well as an increase in fertilizer application rate at 1X irrigation substantially delayed fruit ripening. Hence, careful management of fertilizer and water application rate could be used to extend the harvesting period and, therefore, the marketing window of South African ‘Triumph’. We recommend that the trial be continued for a further few seasons so that the effect of water and fertilizer application rates on fruit quality and storability can be assessed. Fruit set may also be affected as trees reach their mature size with a concomitant increase in shading. en
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Persimmonverbouing is ‘n nuwe bedryf in Suid-Afrika met ongeveer 700 ha van die tweeslagtige, partenokarpiese Triumph cultivar wat sedert 1998 aangeplant is. Min plaaslike kundigheid is beskikbaar om produsente van raad te bedien oor hoe om te werk te gaan om hoë opbrengste van hoë kwaliteit te verkry. Vorige navorsing het getoon dat resepte wat ‘Triumph’ van Israel na Suid-Afrika gevolg het, nie noodwendig suksesvol hier toegepas kan word nie. ‘Triumph’ boorde in Suid-Afrika neig om lank te neem alvorens hul hul maksimum produksievermoë bereik. Persimmons is oor die algemeen baie groeikragtig en geneig tot hoë vrugval, deels as gevolg van hul geil groei, en veral terwyl hulle jonk is en op die uiters groeikragtige Diospyros lotus saailingonderstam geënt is. Die eerste doelwit van hierdie studie was om die invloed van groei inhibeerders en verskillende grade van strafheid van ringelering op blomvorming, vrugset en oesopbrengs in jonk, sterk-groeiende ‘Triumph’ boorde te evalueer. Insnyding en ringelering met ‘n handsaag het vrugset en oeslading in twee groeikragtige boorde verbeter en word aanbeveel as geskikte ingrepe om die oeslading van ‘Triumph’ te verhoog. Draad-ringelering, en aanwending van prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca) en paclobutrazol (PBZ) het nie die opbrengs verhoog nie terwyl die verwydering van `n 5 mm strook bas té aggresief was en die vrugkwaliteit in die seisoen van toediening en opbrengs in die daaropvolgende seisoen verlaag het. Geen van die behandelings het blomvorming geaffekteer of vegetatiewe groei verminder nie. Dit wil voorkom asof PBZ, veral as blaartoediening, vrugrypwording kan versnel. Blare het tekens van fitotoksisiteit getoon na aanwending van P-Ca teen 125 mg L-1 en 250 mg L-1. P-Ca het ook die opbrengs in beide boorde aansienlik verlaag. Verdere navorsing is egter nodig alvorens P-Ca en PBZ sondermeer verwerp word as behandelings om die groei van ‘Triumph’ te beheer. Die winsgewendheid van boorde is afhanklik daarvan dat bome aanvanklik vinnig groei ten einde die toegekende boomryvolume so spoedig moontlik te vul en sodoende so vinnig as moontlik hul vol produksievermoë bereik. Bogenoemde is natuurlik teenstrydig met die negatiewe effek van uitermatige geil vegetatiewe groei op vrugproduksie. Die tweede doelwit van hierdie studie was dus om die optimale vlakke van besproeiing en bemesting te bepaal wat die vroeë aanvang van hoë opbrengste in nuwe ‘Triumph’ boorde sal verseker. Vloeibare bemesting is in kombinasie met besproeiing teen drie vlakke toegedien nl. ½X, 1X en 2X met 1X die kommersiële standaard vlak van toediening. Besproeiing is ook teen hierdie vlakke toegedien sonder dat kunsmis bygevoeg is. Addisioneel hiertoe is bemesting ook toegedien teen ½X, 1X en 2X teen 1X besproeiing. Boomgrootte het toegeneem met `n toename in die vlak van besproeiing. `n Lineêre toename in vruggrootte met ‘n toename in die vlak van besproeiing het ‘n oorsaaklike lineêre toename in opbrengs tot gevolg gehad. Bemesting in kombinasie met besproeiing, ½X besproeiing sonder bemesting, asook `n toename in die bemestingsvlak by 1X besproeiing het vrugrypwording substansieel vertraag. Die omsigtige bestuur van bemesting- en besproeiingsvlakke kan moontlik gebruik word om die oesperiode, en dus die bemarkingsvenster, vir Suid-Afrikaanse ‘Triumph’ te verleng. Ons beveel aan dat die proef vir ‘n vêrdere aantal seisoene voortgesit word sodat die effek van bemesting- en besproeiingsvlakke op vrugkwaliteit en -houvermoë bepaal kan word. Verhoogde oorskaduwing soos wat bome van sekere behandelings hul toegekende spasie bereik en oorskry, kan ook in die toekoms ‘n invloed op vrugset uitoefen. af
dc.format.extent 84 p. : ill.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch
dc.subject Persimmon -- Yields en
dc.subject Fertigation en
dc.subject Fruit maturity en
dc.subject Dissertations -- Horticulture en
dc.subject Theses -- Horticulture en
dc.subject Fruit trees -- Growth en
dc.title Advancing full production and increasing yield in young 'Triumph' persimmon orchards en
dc.type Thesis
dc.rights.holder University of Stellenbosch


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