The effect of different irrigation frequencies in combination with boron and calcium bunch applications on berry split of SoutherngrapeOne

Koekemoer, Abraham Leander (2010-03)

Thesis (MScAgric (Viticulture and Oenology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The table grape industry employ a wide range of viticultural management practices in order to produce the high quality grapes demanded by the export market. A common contributor to degrading the quality of table grapes is the occurrence of berry split, which not only has an unattractive visual effect, but also increases the berries’ susceptibility to infection by spoilage organisms. A number of environmental conditions such as rainfall and humidity, and/or agricultural practices, such as irrigation, and high density canopies, can lead to higher plant cell water content. This in turn, can increase the potential of berry split to occur. To date, the main method of berry split prevention has been the management of plant water status by; (i) regulating irrigation withdrawal times, and (ii) covering of canopies if rainfall is predicted prior to harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the effect that irrigation frequency, as induced by irrigation withdrawals; as well as boron (B) and calcium (Ca) treatments, applied as bunch directed sprays, have on pre- and post-harvest berry split. To this end, a newly released late ripening, white seedless cultivar, SoutherngrapeOne was chosen as a model cultivar as it has a high susceptibility to berry split. SoutherngrapeOne vines were subsequently subjected to a range of irrigation frequencies based on typical irrigation scheduling used in the table grape industry, which comprised of a low, medium and high frequency. The low frequency was duplicated in order to demonstrate the effect that a heavy irrigation, just before harvest may have on berry split. These treatments were further subdivided to investigate the effect that B and Ca may have on berry split. For the B treatment, four Solubor1 bunch directed sprays were applied from 8mm berry size to véraison. The Ca treatment consisted of Stopit R 2 and Caltrac R 3 bunch directed sprays applied over the same period. In addition, a combination of the B and Ca treatment were applied to investigate any possible interaction. To account for the effect of water as solvent in the B and Ca treatments, and the spraying effect, pure water as treatment was also evaluated. Control vines received no sprays. The applied irrigation treatments resulted in different plant water status conditions. Separate applications of B and Ca treatments resulted in a decrease of B and Ca content in the flesh respectively. The control and combination treatment, of B and Ca resulted in the same of B and Ca content in the flesh. Furthermore, none of the applied treatments resulted in an increase of either B or Ca content in the berry skin. It was found that the medium frequency irrigation resulted in the best irrigation strategy to prevent pre-harvest berry split. Surprisingly, all the subtreatments: B, Ca, and combination of B and Ca, resulted in an increased incidence of pre-harvest berry split when compared to the control group for the 2006/07 season. However, in the 2007/08 season only the B treatment resulted in an increase of pre-harvest berry split. Concerning post-cold-storage physiological disorders, Ca treatments appear to have reduced berry drop, but increased decay. In the 2006/07 season, the B treatment resulted in reduced post-cold-storage berry split, whereas Btreatment in the 2007/08 season had no effect. Both B and Ca should be considered as having the potential to increase the appearance of hairline cracking. Calcium treatment also led to an increase in decay which may have been as a result of the splitting it contributed to. Low frequency irrigation recieving irrigation before harvest was found to result in browner stems. Low irrigation frequencies decreased the cell size of the berry skin. The Ca treatment gave rise to thicker (weaker) cell walls, this morphological change may be responsible for the physiological disorders it caused. From these findings, it can be deduced that poorly managed irrigation, together with unnecessary application of B and/or Ca may result in an increase of berry split and other physiological disorders, with subsequent financial losses for the producer.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING; Die tafeldruifindustrie maak gebruik van ’n wye reeks wingerdkundige praktyke ten einde die hoë gehalte druiwe te produseer wat die uitvoermark vereis. Korrelbars is ’n algemene verskynsel wat afbreek maak tot die gehalte van tafeldruiwe. Behalwe dat voorkoms van die druiwe benaadeel word, verhoog dit ook in vatbaarheid vir infeksie deur verrottingsveroorsakende swamme. Hoë reënval en humiditeit, sowel as wingerdkundige praktyke soos besproeiing en hoë lowerdigtheid, wat kan lei tot verhoogde waterstatus in plante, kan lei tot ’n toename in korrelbars. Daar word hoofsaaklik van twee metodes gebruik gemaak om korrelbars te beheer, naamlik die bestuur van plantwaterstatus deur; (i) beheer van besproeiingsontrekkingstye en (ii) bedekking van lowers indien reën voorspel word voor oestyd. Die doel van hierdie studie was om vas te stel wat die invloed van besproeiings frekwensies sowel as trosgerigte boor (B) en kalsium (Ca), spuitbehandelings, op voor- en na-oes korrelbars het. Die onlangs vrygestelde laat rypwordende, wit, pitlose kultivar, SoutherngrapeOne is gebruik, aangesien dit hoogs gevoelig is vir korrelbars. Stokke is aan verskillende besproeiings intervalle, soos tipies gebruiklik in die tafeldruifindustrie, blootgestel. Hierdie intervalle bestaan uit n’ lae, medium en hoë besproeiings frekwensie. Die lae besproeiings frekwensie is herhaal ten einde die invloed van besproeiing net voor oestyd op korrelbars te ondersoek. Die invloed van B- en Ca-behandeling op korrelbars is ook ondersoek. Vir die B-behandeling is vier Solubor1 trosgerigte spuite aangewend vanaf 8mm korrelgrootte tot deurslaan. Vir die Ca-behandeling is Stopit R 2 en Caltrac R 3 as trosgerigte spuite oor dieselfde tyd toegedien. Kombinasiebehandelings is ook aangewend om enige interaksie tussen B en Ca te ondersoek. Waterbehandelings is ook toegedien om die invloed van water as oplosmiddel van B- en Ca-behandelings sowel as die spuit-effek te ondersoek. Kontrole stokke is ook ingesluit en het geen spuitebehandeling ontvang nie. Die besproeiingsbehandelings het verskillende plantwater toestande tot gevolg gehad, B- en Ca-behandelings het gelei tot ’n afname in B- en Cainhoud in die vleis onderskeidelik. Die kombinasie en kontrole behandelings het eenderse hoeveelhede B en Ca in die vleis tot gevolg gehad. Geen van die aangewende behandelings gelei tot ’n toename in B- en Ca-inhoud in die dop nie. Die resultate toon dat medium besproeiings frekwensie die beste besproeiingsstrategie is om voor-oes korrelbars te voorkom. In vergelyking met die kontrole-behandeling in 2006/07, het B, Ca en die kombinasie van B en Ca, ’n toename in voor-oes korrelbars tot gevolg gehad. In die 2007/08 seisoen het slegs die B-toediening egter tot ’n toename in voor-oes korrelbars gelei. Kalsium behandelings het ’n afname in los-korrels, maar ’n verhoging in korrelbars tot gevolg gehad. In 2006/07, het B-toediening tot ’n afname in korrelbars na koelopberging gelei, maar in die 2007/08 seisoen het dit geen effek gehad nie. Beide B- en Ca-toediening het die potensiaal om haarlyn barste te veroorsaak. Kalsium toediening het bederf verhoog wat moontlik aan die hoër bars wat dit induseer toegeskryf kan word. Lae besproeiings frekwensie, het bruiner stingels veroorsaak, en ook gelei tot ’n afname van selgrootte in die dop. Die Ca-toediening het aanleiding gegee tot dikker selwande in die dop. Hierdie anatomiese veranderinge kan moontlik die rede wees vir die verhoging in fisiologise afwykings. Van hierdie bevindinge kan ons aflei dat swak bestuur van besproeiing, sowel as die onnodige aanwending van B en/of Ca, kan aanleiding gee tot ’n toename in korrelbars en ander fisiologiese afwykings, en dus finansiële verliese vir die produsent inhou.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4215
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